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|Title:||Female Heroes, Spanish Civil War and Memory in La voz dormida by Dulce Chacón|
女性英雄、西班牙內戰及記憶：論杜爾瑟．洽宮的《沉睡的聲音》（La voz dormida）
Dulce Chacón;female hero;Spanish Civil War;memory;double marginalization
|Issue Date:||2018-08-28 16:17:01 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||近年來，西班牙學界紛紛興起了重新建構西班牙內戰後的女性記憶及創傷經驗之生命書寫，除了回歸女性追尋內在本質及社會實踐的議題，也突顯了女性在西班牙內戰扮演的歷史角色，體現女性在戰火的蹂躪下，她們如何經歷「英雄旅程」的考驗，試圖證明戰爭也是屬於女性的生命經驗。杜爾瑟．洽宮(Dulce Chacón, 1954-2003)的文學生涯始於九０年代，是西班牙本世紀的重要作家，也是畢生關注女性處境及倡導為邊緣者（內戰受害者/戰敗者）發聲的文壇女鬥士。《沉睡的聲音》(La voz dormida)於2002年出版，主要描寫共和派(Republican)女性於內戰期間及佛朗哥獨裁執政期所遭受的性別/政治壓迫及如何以毅力勇於抵抗的歷史悲歌。該小說堪稱西班牙近年來記憶書寫風潮(memory boom)最具代表性的作品之一，是杜爾瑟．洽宮最受讀者及文評家讚賞的巔峰之作。小說主要場景聚焦在戰後(1939-1963)馬德里芬達(las Ventas)的女子監獄，故事的情節主軸環繞在一群拘禁在芬達監獄的女性政治犯如何經歷生存死亡之苦難經驗，也不時穿插佛朗哥政府以殘酷的刑罰對待共和派女性犯人的情節，突顯了共和派女性因性別及政治意識形態的差異所遭受的「雙重邊緣」(double marginalization)之壓制。禁錮的氛圍充斥於女子監獄內外，卻展現出女性團結(female solidarity)、互相扶持的姊妹情誼。本論文試圖探討洽宮如何藉著獄中女性政治犯的感人故事，體現「女性英雄」在戰亂中的經驗，也藉著拯救集體記憶與見證，還原西班牙內戰時的社會不平等與權力濫用，再現共和派女性英雄角色的身份認同。我們也將分析洽宮如何融合傳統的女性表達方式（書信、日記及口述證明）及代表父權體制的官方文件，成功的挑戰傳統以來屬於男性經驗的戰爭議題，顛覆既有的內戰歷史論述及文化記憶。|
In recent years, it is noted that in the academic circles of Spain, the reconstruction of female memory in the postwar period and the writing on the experience of trauma have been flourishing. Apart from recurring with the issues of searching for the inner essence and social practice, the historical role played by women of the Spanish Civil War has been highlighting, showing us how they have confronted with the trials of ＂heroic journey＂ with the purpose of proving that war is also part of women‘s experiences. Dulce Chacón (1954-2003), whose literary career initiated in the years of nineties, has been considered as one of the most influential female writers in contemporary Spain and also a brave fighter in the literary circle who has dedicated to show concern about the marginal situation of women and give voices to the victims or defeated ones in the Civil War. La voz dormida (The Sleeping Voice), published in 2002, focuses on the gender-specific and political repressions suffered by women during the Civil War and the regime of Franco, and with perseverance they were able to resist historical adversities. La voz dormida has become one of the most representative works in the memory boom in Spain and is certainly Chacón's most accomplished novel by critics as well as by readers. The novel‘s major scene is set in the Ventas women‘s prison in the postwar Madrid (1939-1963) and the story deals with the painful experience of life and death suffered by a group of female political prisoners in the Ventas. Besides, this novel focuses on the episodes of the severe treatment (torture and punishment) of Republican women by the Nationalist regime, emphasizing women‘s double marginalization as consequence of the differences in gender and political ideology. The atmosphere of imprisonment is revealed inside and outside the prison of the Ventas, however, the female solidarity and mutual support among female prisoners are central to the narrative. The present paper aims to explore how Chacón portrays the experiences of female heroes in La voz dormida through the touching stories of certain female political prisoners. Through the recovery of collective memory and the testimonies, we will intend to reveal social inequality and the abuse of power in order to reconstruct the identities of Republican female heroes. Furthermore, we will analyze how Chacón combines the traditional forms of feminine expression (letters, diaries, oral testimony) with the patriarchal discourse of official documents to challenge the issue of war traditionally seen as masculine experience and subvert the historical discourse and the cultural memory of the Spanish Civil War.
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