Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/132052


Title: 界定漢語方位詞的詞類與詞態屬性
Justifying the Syntactic Category and Morphological Status of Mandarin Localizers
Authors: 梁瑀庭
Liang, Yu-Ting
Contributors: 何萬順
Her, One-Soon
梁瑀庭
Liang, Yu-Ting
Keywords: 漢語方位詞
詞類
詞態屬性
Mandarin
localizers
syntactic category
morphological status
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2020-10-05 15:14:35 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 空間的表達在語言中佔據一定的位置,漢語中用來表達空間方位的元素通常被 稱為「方位詞」,然而在目前的研究中漢語方位詞尚未被清楚定義,並且它的詞類和 詞態屬性也存在一些爭議。提到方位詞的詞類,學者們說法不一,其中,劉丹青(2003: 129-137)認為方位詞在歷時演變中意義逐漸虛化,性質更接近後置詞;Cheung(2016) 根據方位詞的語法特徵將方位詞界定為名詞的次類。除此之外,關於方位詞詞態屬 性的說法也存在分歧,Liu(1998)主張方位詞是附著語素;Nie & Liu(2020)主張 方位詞是詞組尾端黏著形式(phrasal bound form),在詞態屬性和詞類方面,不同 學者對於方位詞有不同的說法,因此本文旨在定義漢語方位詞,並界定漢語方位詞 的詞類與詞態屬性。
本文使用漢語介詞「在」,從語意和句法的的角度切入說明方位詞的定義,介詞 「在」的用法為[在 + [處所名詞/*非處所名詞]],例如,[在學校/*桌子],方位詞可 以擔任「在」的論元,因此方位詞擁有處所名詞的性質,然而方位詞卻和處所名詞 有些微的不同,方位詞的解讀必須依賴它前面的名詞短語,才能得到它的完整語意。 本文根據分析將方位詞定義為:方位詞是處所名詞的次類,可以擔任「在」的論元, 但是需要找到先行詞才能得到完整的語意。釐清方位詞的定義後,就可以進入下一 步的測試,本文使用處所詞倒置的方式來檢驗方位詞,也就是方位詞和它前面的名 詞短語可以從介詞補語的位置放到主詞的位置,如果是方位詞的話就必須通過測試。
接著討論方位詞的詞態屬性與詞類,本文主要使用三個測試方法來檢驗方位詞 的詞態屬性是否為詞:(1)連接詞測試:兩個方位詞可以使用連接詞連接,例如, 桌子[上面和下面]都有書。(2)簡短回答測試:回答問句時,方位詞可以獨立出現 作為完整的回答。例如,問:書在桌子[上面還是下面]?答:下面。(3)「的」測 試:方位詞和前面的名詞短語之間可插入「的」。若通過這三個測試,則方位詞的 詞態屬性為詞,若不通過,才進一步討論方位詞是否為比詞稍不自由的附著語素, 若還是不符合,才討論方位詞是否為最不自由的詞綴。根據上述幾個測試與L(i 2019)提出的其他論述,本文認為雙音節方位詞與多音節方位詞的詞態屬性都是詞(word), 而單音節方位詞在有限的環境中有詞的詞態屬性,在其他環境中單音節方位詞的詞 態屬性為附著語素。根據Cheung(2016)的分析,方位詞可以出現在大部分名詞能 出現的位置,例如可以擔任主詞或受詞的位置、可以和名詞詞組用連接詞結合等等, 因此本研究根據這些證據主張不論方位詞的詞態屬性為何,它們都擁有名詞的特性。 本文將論述後置詞說的缺點,接著論述名詞說的優點,最後,將單音節方位詞、雙 音節方位詞與多音節方位詞界定為名詞。
在文章的最後,我們將符合方位詞定義並通過測試的方位詞收納到漢語方位詞列表中,以漢語方位詞列表為基礎,建立台灣華語方位詞列表,表中補充其他學者未整理的多音節方位詞,並以中央研究院平衡語料庫的資料觀察台灣華語方位詞的使用情況。
The elements used to express spatial orientation in Mandarin are usually called "localizers". However, in the literature Mandarin localizers have not been clearly defined. When it comes to their syntactic category and morphological status, Chinese grammarians have quite different views. Liu (2003: 129-137), for example, suggests that the meanings of localizers have gradually become more general in diachronic evolution, and their grammatical nature is now closer to postpositional words. Yet, Cheung (2016) defines localizers as a subcategory of nouns based on their grammatical characteristics. There is also disagreement regarding the morphological status of localizers. Liu (1998) advocates that localizers are clitics, while Nie & Liu (2020) argue that localizers are phrasal bound forms. In short, regarding the morphological status and syntactic category of localizers, scholars do not seem to have a common view. This thesis thus aims to first define Mandarin localizers and then sets out to justify their syntactic category and morphological status. This thesis uses the Mandarin preposition “zài 在” to formulate a definition of localizers from the perspectives of both semantics and syntax. Specifically, the preposition zài 在 must take a place noun as its argument, i.e., [zài 在 + place noun/*place noun]], e.g., [zài xué xiào學校/* zài zhuō zi 在桌子]. A localizer can be used as an argument of zài 在; localizers thus have the properties of place nouns.
However, localizers are slightly different from place nouns. In order to get the complete meaning, the interpretation of the localizer must rely on a noun phrase before it. Based on the analysis, localizers are seen as a subcategory of place nouns, which can serve as an argument of zài 在 but they need to find a antecedent to complete their reference. After defining localizers, we then propose a method to test localizers, i.e., locative inversion. That is, a localizer and the noun phrase before it can be moved from the position of prepositional complement to the subject position. If it passes the test, it is a localizer. We then discuss the morphological status and syntactic category of localizers. This thesis uses three methods to test whether the morphological status of localizers is words: (1) Conjunction test: two localizers can be connected by conjunction, (2) Short answer test: when answering questions, the localizer can appear independently as a short answer, (3) “de 的” test: “de 的” can be inserted between the localizers and the preceding noun phrase. If a localizer passes one of the three test, its morphological status is word. If not, then we will further discuss whether this localizer is a clitic or not. If it does not comply with the nature of clitic, then we will discuss whether the localizer in question is an affix. Based on the tests and arguments put forward by Li (2019), we demonstrate that the morphological status of disyllabic localizers and multisyllabic localizers are all words. While monosyllable localizers are words in some limited environments, elsewhere they are clitics. According to the analysis of Cheung (2016), localizers can appear in the position where most nouns can appear; for example, they can be used as the subject or object, and they can be combined with noun phrases by conjunction, etc. Therefore, this study argues that regardless of their morphological status, all localizers have the characteristics of nouns. This thesis also discusses the shortcomings of the postposition account and the advantages of nominal account.
Finally, the thesis offers an inventory of Mandarin localizers that comply with the definition. Based on this inventory, we then build a list of localizers specific in Taiwan Mandarin and offers some observations on their usage in the Sinica Corpus.
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劉丹青. 2003. 《語序類型學與介詞理論》。北京:商務印書館。
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Cheung, Chi-Hang Candice. 2016. Localizers. In Parts of speech in Mandarin: the state of the art, 121-131. Singapore: Springer Singapore.
LI, Chao. 2019. Where to locate Mandarin localizers? Journal of Chinese Linguistics 47(2): 345-370.
Liu, Feng-hsi. 1998. A clitic analysis of locative particles. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 26(1): 48-70.
Nie, Xiaowen & Liu, Feng-hsi. 2020. Disyllabic localizers in modern Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics (preprint) 1-38.
Djamouri, Redouane, Waltraud Paul, and John Whitman. 2013. Postpositions vs. prepositions in Mandarin Chinese: The articulation of disharmony. In Theoretical approaches to disharmonic word orders, edited by Theresa Biberauer and Michelle Sheehan, 74–105. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
中央研究院平衡語料庫:http://asbc.iis.sinica.edu.tw
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
語言學研究所
107555008
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107555008
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

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