Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/133832


Title: 置身事外的當事者: 從同理心看十九世紀英美小說
Detached sympathy in the long nineteenth century: Frankenstein, Jane Eyre, and The Portrait of a Lady
Authors: 蘇俞文
Su, Yu-Wen
Contributors: 曾思旭
陳音頤

Justin Prystash
Chen, Yin-I

蘇俞文
Su, Yu-Wen
Keywords: 同理心
共感
公正的觀察者
科學怪人
簡愛
一位女士的肖像
Sympathy
fellow-thinking
Frankenstein
Jane Eyre
The Portrait of a Lady
Date: 2020
Issue Date: 2021-02-01 13:56:37 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 作者認為心理小說透過想像力回應了同理心在十九世紀的發展。這些心理小說,藉由細膩描繪書中主人翁的「共感」(fellow-thinking),從而重新定義了亞當·斯密(Adam Smith)闡述同理心中對一位「公正的觀察者」(impartial spectator)的功能。這公正的旁觀者可以被視為個人良心的人格化,以一個獨立(儘管是看不見的)人物左右主人翁的想法與判斷。在這些小說中,人物依據對這個公正的旁觀者所作的判斷,改變自己的行為。
在本文討論的三本心理小說中,維克多·弗蘭肯斯坦(Victor Frankenstein)、簡·愛(Jane Eyre)和伊莎貝爾·阿切爾(Isabel Archer)試圖在遭遇的各樣衝突中與自我對話,成為一位公正的旁觀者:然而,弗蘭肯斯坦的逝去源於無法成功地與他的創造物(the Creature),也就是他的「旁觀者」達成共識。另一方面,儘管簡·愛(Jane Eyre)與羅切斯特(Rochester)身心靈的契合呈現一個臻於完美的同理心,但此同理心卻未免顯得過度理想化、不真實,因為若不是藉由文末超自然力量的協助,兩位主人翁無法再次相遇,這種完美的同理也將無法實現。與弗蘭肯斯坦和簡·愛不同,《一位女士的肖像》中的伊莎貝爾在不幸的婚姻中重新審視她的意識,也就是與她「公正的觀察者」的重新對話,從本來身為一位不切實際的夢想家轉變為一位客觀的觀察者,並在苦難中獲得自我救贖。
This thesis describes sympathy’s development with fiction in the long nineteenth century. It argues that psychological novels respond to sympathy in the theatric imagination through fellow-thinking. Through discussions of psychological novels, this dissertation argues that these novels facilitate characters’ fellow-thinking in order to redefine the function of what Adam Smith sees as an “impartial spectator.” It seems that, in these novels, characters modify their actions according to their interpretations of the judgements cast by this impartial spectator, an entity which can be considered a separate (albeit unseen) character which functions as a conscience.
In these three psychological novels, Victor Frankenstein, Jane Eyre, and Isabel Archer try to position themselves as this impartial spectator in the conversation or enter into conflict with the other characters, nature, and consciousness: Frankenstein is unable to successfully negotiate his position vis-a-vis a theatric “impartial observer,” his creature, and, as a result, dies. Although Jane Eyre’s sympathy with Rochester is perfect, this idealized sympathy is nonetheless shadowed by the supernatural voice. Without the help (rather than the hindrance) of this force, this perfect sympathy is impossible. Different from Frankenstein and Jane, Isabel in The Portrait is transformed from an absorbed thinker to a more objective observer through her relationship with Osmond. By successfully negotiating her relationship with her conscience, “impartial observer,” her accomplishment redeems her from her suffering.
Reference: Works Cited
Ablow, Rachel. The Marriage of Minds. Stanford University Press, 2007.
Bennett, Kelsey L. Principle and Propensity: Experience and Religion in the Nineteenth-Century British and American Bildungsroman. University of South Carolina Press, 2014.
Bloom, Harold. Introduction. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Ed. Harold Bloom. Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
Boudreau, Kristin. “Henry James’s Inward Aches.” The Henry James Review, vol. 20, no. 1, Johns Hopkins University Press 1999.
Britton, Jeanne M. Vicarious Narratives: A Literary History of Sympathy, 1750-1850. Oxford University Press, 2019.
---“Novelistic Sympathy in Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein.’” Studies in Romanticism, vol. 48. no. 1, Boston University, 2009, pp. 3-22.
Brewer, John. “Sentiment and Sensibility.” The Cambridge History of English Romantic Literature, edited by James Chandler, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Bruner, Jerome. “The Narrative Construction of Reality.” Critical Inquiry, vol. 18, no. 1, University of Chicago Press, 1991, pp.1-21.
Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Margaret Smith. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.
Brissenden, R. F. Virtue in Distress: Studies in the Novel of Sentiment from Richardson to Sade. New York: Barnes &Noble, 1974.
Caruth, Cathy. “Turning Back to Literature.” PMLA, vol. 124, no. 4, 2010.
Chao, Shun-liang. “Shelley’s Frankenstein as a Book of Love and Despair.” Comparative Literature and Culture, vol. 21, no. 5, 2019.
Clery, E. J. The Rise of Supernatural Fiction, 1762–1800. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Colavito, Jason. “Introduction,” ‘A Hideous Bit of Morbidity’: An Anthology of Horror Criticism from the Enlightenment to World War I. McFarland, 2012.
Cohon, Rachel, “Hume’s Moral Philosophy.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2018. 22 Feb. 2019. retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/hume-moral/, 2020.
Cvetkovich, Anne. Mixed Feelings: Feminism, Mass Culture, and Victorian Sensationalism. Rutgers University Press, 1992.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. The Modern library, 1977.
Endersby, Jim. “Sympathetic Science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and the Passions of Victorian Naturalists,” Victorian Studies, vol. 51, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2009, pp. 299–320.
Franklin, J. Jeffrey. “The Merging of Spiritualities: Jane Eyre as Missionary of Love.” Nineteenth-Century Literature. vol. 49, no. 4, University of California Press, 1995, pp. 456-482.
Freud, Sigmund. “Remembering, Repeating and Working-Through.” The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud: The Case of Schreber, Papers on Technique and Other Works. vol. 12. Ed. James Strachey. London : The Hogarth Press, 1958. 145-156.
Gallagher, Catherine. “Marxism and the New Historicism.” The New Historicism. Edited by H. Aram Veeser. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. CT: Yale University Press, 1978.
Greiner, Rae. “Sympathy Time: Adam Smith, George Eliot, and the Realist Novel.” Narrative, vol.17, no 3, The Ohio State University Press, 2009.
-- Sympathetic Realism in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.
Griffen, Andrew. “Fire and Ice in Frankenstein.” The Endurance of “Frankenstein”: Essays on Mary Shelley’s Novel. Ed. George Levine and U. C. Knoepflmacher. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1979.
Gordon, Charlotte. Romantic Outlaws: The Extraordinary Lives of Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley. Random House, 2015.
Habegger, Alfred. “Henry James and the ‘Woman Business.’” Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture, vol. 32, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Hadley, Tessa. Henry James and the Imagination of Pleasure. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Hague, Angela. Fiction, Intuition, and Creativity: Studies in Brontë, James, Woolf, and Lessing. The Catholic University of America Press, 2003.
--“Charlotte Brontë and Intuitive Consciousness.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language, vol. 32, no. 4, 1990, pp. 584-601.
Haidt, Jonathan. “The Moral Emotions.” Handbook of Affective Sciences, edited by R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, and H. H. Goldsmith. Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 852-870.
Hatch, James C. “Disruptive Affects: Shame, Disgust, and Sympathy in Frankenstein.” European Romantic Review. vol. 19, no. 1, 2008, pp. 33–49.
Heller, Lee E. “Frankenstein and the Cultural Uses of Gothic: A Cultural Perspective on Frankenstein,” retrieved from https://www.usask.ca/english/frank/heller.htm, 2020.
Hennelly, Mark M. “Jane Eyre’s Reading Lesson.” ELH, vol. 51, no. 4, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984, pp. 693-717.
Hinton, Laura. “Giving Isabel an ‘Ado’ (Adieu): Sympathy and Sadomasochism in Henry James’s Preface to The Portrait of a Lady.” Women’s Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal vol. 28, no.3, 1999, pp. 303-33.
Hogan, Patrick Colm. Affective Narratology: The Emotional Structure of Stories. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska, 2011.
Hetherington, Naomi. “Creator and Created in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Keats-Shelley Review. vol. 11, 1997, pp.1-39.
Horne, Richard H. A New Spirit of the Age. vol 2. London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1844.
Hume, David. The Philosophical Works of David Hume. vol, 2, edited by A. Black and W. Tait, Edinburgh: 1826.
--- A Treatise of Human Nature, vol. 1, Clarendon Press, 2007.
Hume, Robert D. “Gothic Versus Romantic: A Revaluation of the Gothic Novel” PMLA, vol. 84, no. 2, 1969.
Jaffe, Audrey. Scenes of Sympathy: Identity and Representation in Victorian Fiction Ithaca. Cornell University Press, 2000.
James, Henry. The Portrait of a Lady. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Kant, Immanuel. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Hackett Publishing Company, 1993.
Karpenko, Lara. “‘So Extraordinary a Bond’: Mesmerism and Sympathetic Identification in Charles Adams’s Notting Hill Mystery.” Strange Science: Investigating the Limits of Knowledge in the Victorian, edited by Lara Karpenko and Shalyn Claggett, University of Michigan Press, 2017.
Keen, Suzanne. Empathy and the Novel. Oxford University Press, 2010.
Kornbluh, Anna L. “The Economic Problem of Sympathy: Para-basis, Interest, and Realist Form in Middlemarch,” ELH, vol. 77, no. 4, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, pp. 941–67.
Kucich, John and Taylor, Jenny. “Introduction.” The Nineteenth-Century Novel 1820-1880. Oxford University Press, 2012.
Lamb, Jonathan. The Evolution of Sympathy in the Long Eighteenth Century. Pickering & Chatto, 2009.
LaCapra, Dominick. “‘Acting-Out’ and ‘Working-Through’ Trauma.” Eclipse of Humanity. Yad-Vashem, 2000. CD.
-- “Trauma, Absence, Loss.” Critical Inquiry 25, 1999.
Laird, J. T. “Cracks in Precious Objects: Aestheticism and Humanity in The Portrait of a Lady.” American Literature, vol. 52, no. 4, Duke University Press, 1981.
Lamm, Kimberly. “Modern Spectacle and American Feminism’s Disappointing Daughters: Writing Fantasy Echoes in The Portrait of a Lady.” Feminist Theory, vol 15, no. 2, Duke University, 2014.
Lane, Christopher. “Bulwer’s Misanthropes and the Limits of Victorian Sympathy,” Victorian Studies, vol. 44, no. 4, Indiana University Press, 2002, pp. 597–624.
Layne, Bethany. “The Turn of the Century: Henry James in Millennial Fiction.” The Henry James Review, vol. 39, no 2, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018.
Matus, Jill. “Historicizing Trauma: The Genealogy of Psyche Shock in Daniel Deronda.” Victorian Literature and Culture, vol. 36, no. 1, Bloomsbury, 2008, pp. 59-78.
Mitchell, Rebecca N. “The Rosamond Plots: Alterity and the Unknown in Jane Eyre and Middlemarch,” Nineteenth-Century Literature , vol. 66, no. 3, University of California Press, 2011, pp. 307-327.
Niemtzow, Annette. “Marriage and the New Woman in The Portrait of a Lady.” American Literature, vol. 47, no. 3, Duke University Press, 1975.
Oates, Joyce Carol. “Introduction,” Jane Eyre. Bantam Books, 1981, pp. xiii–xiv.
Otteson, James R. Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings. Library of Scottish Philosophy, vol 3. Andrews UK Limited, 2012.
Parrinder, Patrick. “The Look of Sympathy: Communication and Moral Purpose in the Realistic Novel Author(s).” NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 5, no. 2, Duke University Press, 1972.
Parry, Richard, “Ancient Ethical Theory,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2014. retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/ethics-ancient/, 2020.
Pell, Nancy. “Resistance, Rebellion, and Marriage: The Economics of Jane Eyre.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction, vol. 31, no. 4, University of California Press, 1977, pp. 397-420.
Pennell, Melissa McFarland. Masterpieces of American Romantic Literature. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.
Radden, Jennifer. “‘Love and Loss in Freud’s ‘Mourning and Melancholia’.” Moody Minds Distempered. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp.147-65.
Rawlings, Peter. American Theorists of the Novel: Henry James, Lionel Trilling and Wayne C. Booth. Routledge, 2006
Reed, John R. “Inherited Characteristics: Romantic to Victorian Will.” Studies in Romanticism, vol. 17, no. 3, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
Robert Burden’s Travel, Modernism, and Modernity. Routledge, 2015.
Ryan, Judith. The Vanishing Subject: Early Psychology and Literary Modernism. Chicago University Press, 1991.
Rhys, Jean. Wide Sargasso Sea. New York: Norton, 1985.
Sandeen, Ernest. “The Wings of the Dove and The Portrait of a Lady: A Study of Henry James's Later Phase.” PMLA, vol. 69, no. 5, Modern Language Association, 1954.
Schug, Charles. “The Romantic Form of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, vol.17, no. 4, Rice University, 1977, pp. 607-619.
Scott, Walter. “Remarks on Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus; A novel.” Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, vol 2, no.12, Blackwood, 1818.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, edited by E. B. Murray. vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 1993.
---“A Defense of Poetry.” London: Ginn & Company, 1891.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Collector’s Library, 2004.
--Frankenstein: A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism. Ed. Johanna M. Smith. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000.
Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980. New York: Pantheon, 1985.
Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture, vol. 35, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Smith, Adam. Essays on I. Moral Sentiments. Ed. Joseph Black and James Hutton. Alex. Murray & son, 1872.
--The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Classic English Literature. vol. 18, GRIN Verlag, 2009.
Smith, Guy E. English Literature: After Neoclassicism vol. 2, Taipei: Mei Ya, 1966.
Sternlieb, Lisa. “Jane Eyre: ‘Hazarding Confidences.’” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 53, no. 4, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 452-479.
Stiles, A. Neurology and Literature, 1860-1920. Springer, 2007.
Swingle, L. J. “Frankenstein's Monster and Its Romantic Relatives: Problems of Knowledge in English Romanticism.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language, vol.16, University of Texas Press, 1973, pp. 51-65.
Tankard, Alexandra. “Emasculation, Eugenics and the Consumptive Voyeur in ‘The Portrait of a Lady’ (1881) and ‘The Story of a Nobody’ (1893)”. Critical Survey, vol. 20, no. 3, Berghahn Books, 2008.
Taylor, J. Bourne. Secret Theatre of Home: Wilkie Collins, Sensation Narrative, and Nineteenth-Century Psychology. Victorian Secrets, 2013.
Trilling, Lionel. The Moral Obligation to Be Intelligent: Selected Essays. Northwestern University Press, 2008.
Van Ghent, Dorothy. “On The Portrait of a Lady.” James, Henry. The Portrait of a Lady. New York: Norton Critical Edition. Ed. Michael Gorra. W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.
Wilson, Eric Entrican and Denis, Lara. “Kant and Hume on Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. 2018. retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/kant-hume-morality/, 2019.
Williams, Merryn, Women in the English Novel 1800-1900. London: Macmillan Press, 1984.
Van Ghent, Dorothy. “On The Portrait of a Lady.” The Portrait of a Lady. Edited by Michael Gorra. New York: Norton Critical Edition. W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.
Description: 博士
國立政治大學
英國語文學系
105551501
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105551501
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
150101.pdf1157KbAdobe PDF8View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing