Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/133922


Title: 零工經濟勞動關係之研究
A Study on The Labour Relations of The Gig Economy
Authors: 邱馨慧
CHIU, HSIN-HUI
Contributors: 張其恆
Chyi-Herng Chang
邱馨慧
CHIU, HSIN-HUI
Keywords: 零工經濟
平台經濟
勞動關係
勞動地位
社會保障
勞動過程
Gig economy
Labour relations
Labor status
Social security
Labor process
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-02-01 14:17:21 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 零工經濟勞動關係之型態與特性與過往勞動關係產生極大衝突與矛盾,本文藉由零工經濟形成與概念了解零工經濟之出現與發展情況後,盤點各國在勞動地位與社會保障之議題上之困境與因應方式並發現幾個特點1零工經濟發達地區越能看見零工經濟之全貌且因發展較為全面在處理勞動問題之案例較多,故更積極解決勞動爭議進而出現較多突破性進展,如加州AB5法案與中國網約車法案。2由政府推動零工經濟者在法規應對上較有明確之思考方向,如日本傾向以獨立承攬人處理故以保障公平交易為目標。3強調社會保障之地區在處理勞動議題上著重於如何解決保障不足之問題,故衍生多元的社會保障處理途徑,如德國藝術家基金、比利時由政府向平台課稅提供勞動保障等。
細究各國執著於二問題意識之理由在於平台透過科技工具管理勞動過程與零工經濟「顧客(商家)–平台–勞動者」之三方(多方)勞動關係與以往就服機構之三方勞動關係不同,故藉由探究平台角色發現科技從屬性之存在與平台具就服機構之特性但已無法適用舊有規定,而為解決新勞動型態之問題本文建議從聯合雇主概念擴張雇主概念並從彈性安全之概念找尋勞動者真正需保障之地方讓市場與保障兼具彈性。
The type and characteristics of labor relations in the gig economy are in great conflict and contradiction with the previous labor relations. In this paper, through understanding the emergence and development of the gig economy. We focus on the issues of labor status and social security in various countries and find several characteristics: 1The more developed countries have seen the full picture of the gig economy and labour disputes also increased accordingly, so they have more motivative to deal with that and get some breakthough process, eg AB5.2 The government promotes the gig economy, which has a clear direction of thinking in terms of regulations, like Japan.3Regions that emphasize social security focus on how to solve the gig workers inadequate protection, and therefore have diversified ways of dealing with social security, such as the German Artists' Fund and Belgium government provides labor protection to platform taxation.
The reason for countries' insistence on two issues is that platfrom use technology to control labour process and the tripartite (multi-party) labor relationship of "customer (merchant)-platform-laborer" in the gig economy is different from the previous tripartite labor relationship of employment service organizations. Therefore, through exploring the role of the platform to find out the existence of technological subordination and the platform have the characteristics of an employment service agency, but rules are not fit with the gig economy. To solve the problem of the new labor type, this paper proposes to clarify the employer's responsibility from the concept of joint the employers and to find out the real need of protection for workers from the concept of flexible safety, so that both market and protection can be flexible.
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(二)外文期刊
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四、判決、法案、行政指導
1.判決
(1)(2014)一中民終字第 6355號、 (2015)一中民終字第 176號、 (2015)一中民終字第 01359號。
(2)Dynamex Operations West, Inc. V. Superior Court
(3)北京二中民終字第07157號(2014)、廣州穗海法民二初字第1082號(2014)、上海浦民一民(初)字第37776號
2.法案
(1)Contingent Workforce Equity Act
(2)Employment Rights Act 1996
(3)Ley 20/2007, De 11 De Julio, Del Estatuto Del Trabajo Autónomo.
(4)S.541 - Portable Benefits For Independent Workers Pilot Program Act
3.行政指導
(1)《Employment Determination Guide》。State Of California Employment Development Department
(2)《在宅ワーカーのためのハンドブック》。厚生勞動省。
(3)《家内労働のしおり》。厚生勞動省。

五、雜誌
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六、網站資料
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5.〈美團騎手3元險賠償範圍〉,檢自:「Https://Cadforex.Com/Baoxian/30100.Html」
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8.〈新安東京海上產物機車營業用途附加條款〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Tmnewa.Com.Tw/Insuranceproductdetail.Aspx?Listid=B4276bba-3189-4ec8-Af4a-770c15ea2596&Categoryid=911ce2a2-7742-4bea-9982-12e8ad7ccfb6」
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10.《九江市推出灵活就业人员职业伤害保险》,檢自:Http://Www.Jiujiang.Gov.Cn/Xxgk/Zdlyxxgk/Shgysy/Cjjy/Ldbz/201912/T20191211_2226780.Html
11.《市政府印發太倉市靈活就業人員職業傷害保險暫行辦法的通知》,檢自:「Www.Tcrcsc.Com/News_22948.Html」
12.Chen Jerry,〈Ipaas 究竟是甚麼?您需要透過Ipaas工瑛商進行檔案傳輸嗎? 〉,檢自: Https://Www.Ecnetworker.Com/2019/06/11/Ipaas-%E7%A9%B6%E7%AB%9F%E6%98%AF%E4%BB%80%E9%BA%BC%EF%BC%9F%E6%82%A8%E9%9C%80%E8%A6%81%E9%80%8F%E9%81%8E-Ipaas-%E4%BE%9B%E6%87%89%E5%95%86%E9%80%B2%E8%A1%8C%E6%AA%94%E6%A1%88%E5%82%B3%E8%BC%B8/
13.Chenmasa,〈大數據–徹底掌握大數據的定義、趨勢及用途〉,檢自: Https://Oosga.Com/Big-Data
14.READMOO編輯團隊,〈從工業4.0到第四次工業革命,你準備好了嗎? 〉,檢自:Https://News.Readmoo.Com/2017/08/08/4thindrev/
15.SEMI TAIWAN,〈工業4.0大全,從淺到深一篇搞懂它!〉,檢自: Https://Blog.Semi.Org/Zh/%E5%B7%A5%E6%A5%AD4.0%E6%A6%82%E5%85
16.王郁梅,〈5大美食外送平台勞動部認定為雇傭關係 外送員真的有保障了嗎?〉,信傳媒,檢自:「Https://Www.Cmmedia.Com.Tw/Home/Articles/18283」
17.台積電,〈台積電案例分享–開放創新平台(OIP)〉,檢自:Https://Www.Tsmc.Com/Csr/Ch/Update/Innovationandservice/Casestudy/1/Index.Html
18.吳怡靜,〈下一件大事:第四次工業革命〉,檢自:Https://Www.Cw.Com.Tw/Article/Article.Action?Id=5074023
19.李忠謙,〈歐巴馬健保不廢了!川普施政重大挫敗 共和黨撤回歐巴馬健保替代法案〉,檢自《風傳媒》:「Https://Www.Storm.Mg/Article/238853」
20.葉憶如,〈外送員特製保單來了 國泰產險推碎片化商品〉,經濟日報,檢自:「Https://Money.Udn.Com/Money/Story/5617/4542481
21.寧波市人力資源和社會保障局《關於申報2020年度社會保險費個人繳費基數的通告》,檢自: 「Http://Zhzcy.87188718.Com/Fourflat/Webpolicycloud/Printwindow.Aspx?Id=215148」
22.維基百科,〈18世紀〉,最後搜尋日:檢自:Https://Zh.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/18%E4%B8%96%E7%BA%AA
23.維基百科,〈第一次工業革命〉,檢自: Https://Zh.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%80%E6%AC%A1%E5%B7%A5%E4%B8%9A%E9%9D%A9%E5%91%BD#Cite_Note-David_S._Landes_1969-2」
24.蔡亦屏,〈移居鄉村門檻太高?先從遠端兼職開始!|日本鄉村兼職工作媒合網站之興起〉,檢自《上下游News&Market》:「Https://Www.Newsmarket.Com.Tw/Blog/122509/」

(二)外文網站
1.Ipaas(Integration Platform As A Service) ,檢自: 「Https://Searchcloudcomputing.Techtarget.Com/Definition/Ipaas-Integration-Platform-As-A-Service」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
2.Electronically Mediated Work: New Questions In The Contingent Worker Supplement,檢自:「Https://Www.Bls.Gov/Opub/Mlr/2018/Article/Electronically-Mediated-Work-New-Questions-In-The-Contingent-Worker-Supplement.Htm」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
3.Strike Planned: Some Uber Drivers To Stay Off Roads This Weekend,檢自:「Https://Www.Nbcwashington.Com/News/Local/Uber-Strike-Some-Uber-Drivers-Plan-To-Stay-Off-Roads-This-Weekend/1978088/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
4.Uber, Lyft Drivers Protest In Cities Across The U.S.,檢自:「Https://Www.Cbc.Ca/News/Business/Uber-Lyft-Strike-Us-1.5127421」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
5.California’s New Gig Worker Law Is Disrupting The Music Industry And Threatening All Performing Arts, ,檢自:「Https://Calmatters.Org/Commentary/Gig-Economy-3/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
6.Publishers Prepare For New California Law That Puts Limits On Freelance Journalists”, CNN BUSINESS, ,檢自:「Https://Edition.Cnn.Com/2019/12/19/Media/California-Ab5-Freelancers-Media/Index.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
7.Open Letter To Suspend California AB-5, INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, ,檢自:「Https://Www.Independent.Org/News/Article.Asp?Id=13119」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
8.Breaking: Federal Judge Temporarily Blocks AB5 Enforcement Against California Trucking (With Video)〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Freightwaves.Com/News/Breaking-Federal-Judge-Temporarily-Blocks-Ab5-Enforcement-In-California」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
9.Judge: California Can't Enforce AB5 Against Trucking, ,檢自:「Https://Www.Truckinginfo.Com/348933/Judge-Says-California-Cant-Enforce-Ab5-Against-Trucking」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
10.Uber And Postmates Lose Move To Stop Enforcement Of AB5, ,檢自:「Https://Www.Law.Com/Therecorder/2020/02/10/Uber-And-Postmates-Lose-Move-To-Stop-Enforcement-Of-Ab5/?Slreturn=20200609202358」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
11.NYC Regulates Ride-Sharing Businesses With Minimum Wage Base And License Limits,檢自:「Https://Www.Fisherphillips.Com/Gig-Employer/Nyc-Regulates-Ride-Sharing-Businesses-With-Minimum」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
12.New York City Temporarily Halts More Uber And Lyft Cars On The Road,檢自:「Https://Www.Npr.Org/2018/08/09/637008474/New-York-City-Temporarily-Halts-More-Uber-And-Lyft-Cars-On-The-Road」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
13.New York City Votes To Cap Lyft, Uber, Other Ride-Hailing Vehicles, Set Minimum Wage For Drivers It's The First Major U.S. City To Restrict Ride-Hailing Vehicles,檢自:
14.Https://Www.Thedrive.Com/News/22742/New-York-City-Votes-To-Cap-Ride-Hailing-Vehicles-Set-Minimum-Pay-Rates-For-Drivers」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
15.Dependent Worker Act,檢自:「Https://Legislation.Nysenate.Gov/Pdf/Bills/2019/A8343」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
16.Throwing Drivers Under The Bus: Albany Is Poised To Rush Through A Bill That Purports To Protect Gig Economy Workers; It Would Do Nothing Of The Sort, ,檢自:「Https://Www.Nydailynews.Com/Opinion/Ny-Oped-Throwing-Drivers-Under-The-Bus-20190618-Iy2ad63sf5fujhicmu7knisfnu-Story.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
17.NY Lawmakers Propose Gig Worker Protection Law, ,檢自:「Https://Www.Jdsupra.Com/Legalnews/Ny-Lawmakers-Propose-Gig-Worker-90541/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
18.New York Considering Gig Worker Protection Law, 檢自:「Https://Www.Jdsupra.Com/Legalnews/New-York-Considering-Gig-Worker-99549/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
19.Will Gig Workers Finally Get Labor Protections?, 檢自:「Https://Www.Cityandstateny.Com/Articles/Policy/Labor/Will-Gig-Workers-Finally-Get-Labor-Protections.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
20.N.J. Takes Step To Protect ‘Gig Workers’ At Firms Like Uber. Critics Say It Could Cost Jobs, 檢自:「Https://Www.Nj.Com/Politics/2019/11/Nj-Takes-Step-To-Protect-Gig-Workers-At-Firms-Like-Uber-Critics-Say-It-Could-Cost-Jobs.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
21.Bill To Protect N.J. Gig Workers Advances, But Freelancers Still Worried, 檢自:Https://Www.Nj.Com/Politics/2019/12/Bill-To-Protect-Nj-Gig-Workers-Advances-But-Freelancers-Still-Worried.Html(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
22.The Gig Is Up – New Jersey Misclassification Laws Create Extreme Risk For Anyone Utilizing Independent Contractors, 檢自:Https://Www.Jdsupra.Com/Legalnews/The-Gig-Is-Up-New-Jersey-71874/(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
23.Legislation To Test-Drive Portable Benefit Models Introduced In The House And Senate, 檢自:「Https://Www.Warner.Senate.Gov/Public/Index.Cfm/2017/5/Legislation-To-Test-Drive-Portable-Benefit-Models-Introduced-In-The-House-And-Senate」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
24.Sen. Warner Announces Growing Support For Portable Benefits Legislation, 檢自:「Https://Www.Warner.Senate.Gov/Public/Index.Cfm/2018/6/Sen-Warner-Announces-Growing-Support-For-Portable-Benefits-Legislation(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
25.Could ‘Portable Benefits’ Help Gig Workers Find Stability?, Next City, 檢自:「Https://Nextcity.Org/Daily/Entry/Could-Portable-Benefits-Help-Gig-Workers-Find-Stability「Https://Nextcity.Org/Daily/Entry/Could-Portable-Benefits-Help-Gig-Workers-Find-Stability」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
26.The Blackcar Fund,檢自:「Https://Www.Nybcf.Org/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
27.Economically Dependent Self-Employed Workers (Trade),檢自:「Https://Www.Lexology.Com/Library/Detail.Aspx?G=1fe9de0e-F385-4f60-B067-2a389f55e49f」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
28.Italy: Mixed Reaction To Jobs Act,檢自:Https://Www.Eurofound.Europa.Eu/Publications/Article/2015/Italy-Mixed-Reaction-To-Jobs-Act(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
(三)日文
1.〈【イベントレポート】フリーランスが知っておくべき法律「独禁法」「労働法」とは?法整備の最新情報を聞いてきました!〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Servcorp.Co.Jp/Blog/Archives/Law_Freelance.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
2.〈5分で分かる「働き⽅改⾰」とは?取り組みの背景と⽬的を解説〉,檢自:「Https://Bowgl.Com/Work-Style-Reformation/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
3.〈No.1810 家内労働者等の必要経費の特例〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Nta.Go.Jp/Taxes/Shiraberu/Taxanswer/Shotoku/1810.Htm(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
4.〈その発注で大丈夫?フリーランスも独禁法の対象に_公取委初の判断で働く環境は改善されるか〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Businesslawyers.Jp/Articles/343」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
5.〈フリーランスが加入できる社会保険の種類と、保険料を安くする方法〉,檢自:「Https://Pe-Bank.Jp/Guide/Money/7/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
6.〈フリーランスの年金手続きと保険料の節約方法〉,檢自:「Https://Pe-Bank.Jp/Guide/Money/Pension/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
7.〈フリーランスも「労災保険」に入ることが可能に!政府が「特別加入」対象拡大の方針を明示〉,檢自: 「Https://Www.All-Senmonka.Jp/Moneyizm/9585/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
8.〈フリーランス必読。フリーランスと年金の基礎知識〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Freee.Co.Jp/Kb/Kb-Kaigyou/Freelance-And-Pension/」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
9.〈国民年金保険料の免除制度・納付猶予制度〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Nenkin.Go.Jp/Service/Kokunen/Menjo/20150428.Html」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
10.〈副業・兼業の促進に関するガイドラインとは?注意点を簡単にご紹介!〉,檢自:「Https://Mitsucari.Com/Blog/Side_Work_Guideline/」(最後搜尋日期2020/8/25) (最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
11.〈賠償責任保険〉,檢自:「Https://Www.Freelance-Jp.Org/Benefits#Insurance」(最後搜尋日:2020/12/18)
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
勞工研究所
107262014
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107262014
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[勞工研究所] 學位論文

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