Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/134139


Title: 德國右翼民粹型政黨AfD的崛起與其對德國政治之衝擊
The rise of German right-wing populist party AfD and its impact on German political constellation
Authors: 曾筱筑
Tseng, Hsiao-Chu
Contributors: 劉書彬
Liu, Shu-Pin
曾筱筑
Tseng, Hsiao-Chu
Keywords: 民粹主義
右翼民粹型政黨
德國另類選擇黨
分歧理論
Populism
Right-wing populist party
Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)
Cleavage
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-03-02 14:45:21 (UTC+8)
Abstract:   AfD為德國戰後第一個進入聯邦議會的右翼民粹型政黨,德國聯邦議會的政黨體系自此走向「兩大黨四小黨」的局勢,故AfD的興起有其特殊性以及時代意義。於此,本文使用文獻回顧法,試圖從供給的角度來探究AfD快速興起的原因,再分別以政治議題輸入、政策制定以及AfD對德國政黨體系的影響來分析其對德國政治的影響。
  本文發現,AfD的興起反映出德國社會在全球化與反全球化間的分歧結構,AfD的成功主要仰賴於自身高度民主的政黨組織,以及不落窠臼的政治策略;而在政治影響上,雖然AfD僅能發揮間接的政治影響力,但這有助於AfD維持其獨特性,以及給他黨帶來改革的壓力;此外,AfD亦造成聯盟黨在聯合政府籌組上必須付出更多的談判成本,其也間接導致聯盟黨內部的路線紛爭日益劇烈,以及加劇德國政黨體系的分化。而從圖靈根邦的邦長選舉可以發現,AfD相當善用自身的政治手腕來影響各黨間的競合關係,故AfD實為操作民主政治的能手。
  綜上所述,AfD的興起對於德國政治體制的影響有其利弊之處,AfD促使傳統建制型政黨加速回應選民的需求,此舉提升了德國聯邦議會的民主成效;但就柏林共和基本法憲政民主所揭示之人本價值觀而論,AfD的興起讓21世紀的德國公民不得不加以省思民主政治與民粹政治間的差異,並且重新思考民粹政治的界限何在,以及其是否會影響德國的憲政民主。
  AfD is the first right-wing populist party that enters German Bundestag after World War II. Since then, the party system of German Bundestag has changed into the formation of “two major parties and four minor parties”, and for that reason, the rise of AfD has its own uniqueness and epoch-making significance. In this article, I use document analysis as main research method, and attempt from the perspective of supply to explore the reasons why the rapid rise of AfD, and then analyze its influences on German political constellation with aspects of the input of political issues, policy making, and the influence of AfD on German party system.
  This article found that the rise of AfD reflects the divergent structure of German society between globalization and anti-globalization, and the success of AfD mainly depends on its own highly democratic party organization and unconventional political strategies. In terms of political influences of AfD, although AfD can only exert its indirect political influences, it will also conduce AfD to maintain its uniqueness, and pressure other parties into proceeding to reform. In addition, AfD also caused Union parties to pay more negotiation costs in order to form a coalition government. It also indirectly led to increasingly fierce party conflicts within Union parties, as well as aggravated the polarization of the German party system. From the election of the state premier in Thuringia, it can be observed that AfD is quite good at using its own political skills to influence the coopetition between the parties, therefore AfD is really an expert in operating democratic politics.
  In summary, the rise of AfD has its pros and cons for the influence of the German political system. AfD promotes established parties to accelerate their response to the needs of voters, furthermore, this has enhanced the democratic effectiveness of German Bundestag. However, when it comes to human oriented values revealed by Basic Law of constitutionalism and democracy of Berlin Republic, the rise of AfD has forced German citizens in the 21st century to inspect the difference between democratic politics and populist politics. In addition to rethink the boundaries of populist politics, AfD also let Germans to consider whether it will affect German constitutional democracy or not.
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
政治學系
106252019
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106252019
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

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