Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Separatist Movements and Private Diplomacy: Comparing Conflicts and Mediators Peace Processes in India and the Philippines
Panigrahi, Manoj Kumar
Manoj Kumar Panigrahi
Position and Power
Timing of the intervention
|Issue Date:||2021-03-02 14:51:15 (UTC+8)|
本論文中運用了跨個案比較來解析，並著重於私人外交及在種族衝突中的和平營造，再藉由田野採訪調查、檔案研究、引用過往的學術著作等，得到了以下的結論。 首先，本研究認為，眾多第三方調停者之間的協調，對於和平維護以及簽屬和平協議後的監督的必要性。 此外，調停者的地位與權力在確定和平協議的走向最具影響力。 本論文也說明，調停者的人際關係以及地理位置，影響了他們扮演調停者的動機。
在某些案例中，具有相同文化根源且在地理位置上接近衝突的調停者，會主動介入調停，並將協助調停事務視為其道德責任。 最後，調停者介入時機至為重要。 調停者可以及早意識到引發衝突的徵兆，並在衝突開始之前，向政府提出建言，以確保和平。
The study of armed separatist movements (see in the literature review) is a complex process. A conflict involves various aspects, such as its origin, trajectory, escalation, the period of stalemate, negotiation, dispute settlement, and post-conflict peacebuilding. Studies on separatist movements have mostly focused on the strategies of fighting and post-conflict peacebuilding. Researchers have mainly analyzed the crisis's impact and its challenges to the civilians and armed forces. By taking the case of the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), this research aims to examine the role of mediator (3rd party negotiators) interventions in ethnic conflicts and give the mediators the proper credit for their efforts to attain peace. In the previous studies, there has been a lack of research on conflict prevention and what aspects to focus on once a peace agreement has been signed. There has been less research comparing the ethnic conflicts and the peace process involved in India and the Philippines. The cases focused on the thesis are unique in themselves.
This dissertation adopts a cross-case comparison to answer the puzzle and focusing on private diplomacy and peacemaking in ethnic conflicts. By conducting in-field interviews, archival research, and using the previous scholarly works, the dissertation came out with the following conclusion. First, the research argues that coordination among the multiple third-party mediators is necessary to maintain peace on the ground and watchdog for the post-peace agreement deals. Furthermore, it is argued that the mediator's position and power are the most influential in determining the peace deal's direction. This thesis suggests that a mediator's connection and geographical location influence their motives for acting as a mediator.
In some cases, a mediator who shares the same cultural roots and geographically close to the conflict comes forward to mediate, taking it as their moral responsibility. Finally, the timing of the intervention by the mediators is essential. A mediator can identify the early signs of the conflict and bring those concerns to the government to have peace before the conflict begins.
Keywords: Separatist movements, Ethnic conflicts, Mediators, Coordination, Position and Power, Geographical location, Timing of the intervention
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