Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 沙烏地阿拉伯與以色列外交關係影響因素之研究
The study of the factors of the diplomatic relationship between Saudi Arabia and Israel
Authors: 李學昌
Li, Xue-Chang
Contributors: 張景安
Li, Xue-Chang
Keywords: 沙烏地阿拉伯
Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic relationship
Balance of interest
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-03-02 15:02:16 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文將分析沙烏地阿拉伯王國(以下簡稱沙國)與以色列外交關係變化之影響因素。自1948年以色列建國後,沙國與以色列隨著中東局勢的變化,相應地發展出不同的外交互動模式。因此,本文將從1948年至2017年為止,在大約七十年的時間脈絡中,分析沙以外交關係變化的影響因素。此外,本文將以利益平衡論(balance of interest)做為分析的理論基礎,再輔以內部因素、區域因素與外部勢力三大面向作為分析的切入點。
The thesis analyzes the factors of the diplomatic relationship between Saudi Arabia and Israel. Since 1948, the establishment of Israel, Saudi Arabia and Israel have developed different kinds of interactive molds following the changes of the circumstances in Middle East. Thus, the thesis will explain the diplomatic relationship’s factors from 1948 to 2017, within about 70 years. Also, I will apply the theory of balance of interest for the base of explanation and use the three dimensions which are internal factor, regional factor and external factor to be the point of access.
First of all, the thesis is according to the development of diplomatic relationship and categorizes it to three periods which are 1948-1979, 1979-2001 and 2001-2017. Moreover, I will use internal factor to focus on the stability of regime and the conflict of ideology and utilize regional factor to analyze Saudi and Israel’s reaction toward the power change of regional countries. Finally, I will research how the external factor influences Saudi and Israel’s diplomatic relationship. Through the analysis of the dimensions, the thesis will use the theory of balance of interest to submit explanations of the change in the diplomatic relationship. I will make it clearer that whether Saudi Arabia and Israel adapt balance or bandwagon or the other strategies to cope with the changes of their diplomatic relationship.
Finally, the research finds that Saudi and Israel’s diplomatic relationship is influenced by the regional factor in 1948-1979 because the responsibility of national security is responsible to themselves. However, in 1979-2001 and 2001-2017, the diplomatic relationship is influenced a lot by the external factor. The reason is that the responsibility of national security has transferred to the United State in large part. Also, the cooperation is stronger than confrontation in their diplomatic relationship. The obstacle of the conflict of the ideology still exist but it doesn’t impact a lot on their diplomatic relationship.
Reference: 參考文獻
Baxter Kylie and Akbarzadeh Shahram (2008). US foreign Policy in the middle east : The roots of anti-Americanism. New York. Routledge.
Bergen Peter (2002). Holy war: Inside the secret world of Osama bin Laden. New York. Free press.
Brown Carl (2004). Diplomacy in the middle east :The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. New York. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
Bronson Rachel (2006). Thicker than oil :America’s Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia. New York. Oxford University Press.
Black Ian (2017). Enemies and Neighbors: Arabs and Jews in Palestine, 1917-2017. New York. Atlantic Monthly Press.
Camille Mansour (1994). Beyond Alliance: Israel and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dueck Colin (2015). The Obama Doctrine: American grand strategy today. Londan. Oxford University press.
Dumbrell John (2009). Clinton’s Foreign Policy :Between the Bushes, 1992–2000. New York. Routledge.
Feiler Gil (2011). From boycott to economic cooperation the political economy of the Arab boycott of Israel. New York. Routledge
Freedman Robert (2012). Israel and the United States: Six Decades of us–Israel relations. New York. Westview Press.
Gause III. Gregory (2011). Saudi Arabia in the New Middle East. New York. Council on Foreign Relations.
Golan Galia (2009). Soviet policies in the Middle East: From world war two to Gorbachev. Cambridge. Cambridge university press.
Gorvin Yosef (1998). Israel-Soviet Relations, 1953-1967: From Confrontation to Disruption. London: Frank Cass.
Halab Yakub (2009). us foreign policy in the middle East from crises to change. London. Shgate.
Henriksen Thomas (2017). Cycles in US foreign policy since the cold war. New York. Palgrave Macmillan.
Karsh Efraim (2002). Israel: the first hundred years. New York. Routledge.
Kamrava Mehran (2005). The modern Middle East : a political history since the First World War. London. University of California Press.
Kaye Dalia, Nader Alireza, Roshan Parisa (2012). Israel and Iran: A dangerous rivalry. New York. Rand corporation.
Kenneth Pollack (2002). Arabs at war: Military effectiveness, 1948-1991. New York. Library of congress cataloging-in-publication data.
Little Douglas (2008). The United States and the Middle East since 1945. New York. The University of North Carolina Press.
Mandelbaum Michael (2016). Mission failure: America and the world in the post-cold area. New York. Oxford University Press.
Mankoff Jeffrey (2011). Russian Foreign Policy: the return of great power politics. New York. Rowman and Littlefield publishers.
Matthiesen Toby (2015). The other Saudi: Shiism, Dissent and Sectarianism. Cambridge. Cambridge press.
Murrary Donette (2010). US foreign policy and Iran. New York. Routledge.
Onea Tudor (2013). US foreign policy in the post cold war : restraint versus assertiveness from George H W Bush to Barack Obama. New York. Palgrave Macmillan.
Orkaby Asher (2017). Beyond the Arab cold war: the international history of Yemen civil war 1962-1968. London. Oxford University press.
Parsi Trita (2007). Treacherius Alliance: the secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the United States. New York. Yale University press.
Peterson. J. E (1993). Historical dictionary of Saudi Arabia. London. Scarecrow press.
Peterson. J. E (2002). Saudi Arabia and the illusion of security. New York. Routledge.
Podeh Elie (1999). The decline of Arab Unity: the rise and fall of United Arab Republic. London. Sussex Academic press.
Prifti Bledar (2017). US Foreign Policy in the Middle East :The Case for Continuity. New York. Palgrave Macmillan.
Reich Bernard (2008). A brief history of Israel. New York. Facts on file.
Rogan Eugene & Shlaim Avi (2007). The war for Palestine: rewriting the history of 1948. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Safran Nadav (1988). Saudi Arabia: the ceaseless quest for security. London. Cornell university press.
Schweller Randall (1998). Deadly Imbalances Tripolarity and Hitler strategy of world conquest. New York. Columbia University press.
Shindler Colin (2014). Israel and the world power : Diplomatic Alliances and International Relations beyond the Middle East. New York. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
Tal David (2004). War in Palestine: Israeli and Arab strategy and diplomacy. New York, Routledge.
Trofimov Yaroslav (2008). Siege of Mecca: the forgotten uprising in Islam holiest shrine. New York. Penguin book.
Ulrichsen Kristian (2015). Insecure Gulf. New York. Oxford university press.
Unger Craig (2004). House of Bush, House of Saud. New York. Scribner.
Varble Derek (2003). The suez crisis 1956. London. Osprey Publishing.
Vassiliev Alexei (2000).The history of Saudi Arabia. New York. New York。university press.
Waltz Kenneth(1998). Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York. Columbia University Press.
Wynbrandt James (2010). A brief history of Saudi Arabia. New York. Facts on File.
Zeev Maoz (2009). Defending the Holy Land : a critical analysis of Israel’s security and foreign policy. New York. University of Michigan.

Aarts Paul (2007). Saudi Arabia Walks the Tightrope. The International Spectator, 42:4, 545-550.
Abadi Jacob (2019). Saudi Arabia's rapprochement with Israel: the national security imperatives. Middle Eastern Studies, 55:3, 433-449,
Bahgat G. (2005). Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf. Energy Policy 671–677.
Beck Martin (2019). Israel and the Arab gulf : an Israeli and Saudi alliance in the making. Center for Mellemoststudier.
Blanchard Christopher (2018). Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service.
Brands Hal (2011). Saddam and Israel: What Do the New Iraqi Records Reveal? , Diplomacy & Statecraft, 22:3, 500-520
Bronson Rachel (2005). Rethinking religion: The legacy of the U.S.‐Saudi relationship. Washington Quarterly, 28:4, 119-137.
Black Ian (2019). Just Below the Surface: Israel, the Arab Gulf States and the Limits of Cooperation. LSE Middle East Centre Report.
Chubin Shahram (2012). Iran and the Arab spring: Ascendancy Frustrated. GRC GULF PAPER
Finkelstein Norman (1991). Israel and Iraq: A Double Standard. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 43-56.
Gerges Fawaza (2013). The Obama approach to the Middle East: the end of America’s moment?. International Affairs 89: 2 , 299–323.
Gordon Philip (2003). Bush's middle east vision. Survival :Global Politics and Strategy. 45:1, 155-165.
Güney Aylın & Gökcan Fulya (2010). The Greater Middle East as a Modern Geopolitical Imagination in American Foreign Policy. Geopolitics, 15:1, 22-38
Guzansky Yoel (2011). Tacit Allies: Israel and the Arab Gulf States, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 5:1, 9-17.
Guzansky Yoel & Yadlin Amos (2013). The Arab World's Response to an Israeli Attack on Iran, Survival, 55:4, 107-120
Guzansky Yoel (2015). Iran and the Arab Gulf States: Change amidst Continuity, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 9:1, 63-74
Guzansky Yoel (2015). Israel and the Arab Gulf states: from tacit cooperation to reconciliation?. Israel Affairs, 21:1, 131-147
Haji-Yousefi Amir Mohammad (2018). Political Culture and Iran`s Foreign Policy: A Comparative Study of Iran`s Foreign Policy during Ahmadinejad and Rouhani. Journal of World Sociopolitical Studies Vol. 2| No. 2
Ibish Hussein (2017). In search of Trump administration Middle East policy. Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington.
Inbar Efraim (2013). Israel is not isolated. Mideast Security and Policy Studies No. 99.
Ighani Helia (2016). Managing the Saudi-Iran Rivalry. Council on foreign relation.
Jones Clive & Guzansky Yoel (2017). Israel’s relations with the Gulf states: Toward the emergence of a tacit security regime?. Contemporary Security Policy, 38:3, 398-419.
Jack Thompson (2018). Trump middle east policy. CSS analyses in security No 233.
Jain Sandhya (2015). Saudi Arabia: King salman faces the 21st Century. Strategic Analysis, 39:3, 280-286
Koc Mehmet (2019). Interpretation of the rise of the crown prince Muhammad Bin Salman and Saudi foreign policy according to the barakah circle theory. Journal of Islamicjerusalem 19(2): 165-180.
Kostiner Joseph (2009). Saudi Arabia and the Arab–Israeli Peace Process: The Fluctuation of Regional Coordination, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 36:3, 417-429.
Kahwaji Riad (2003). Gulf Cooperation Council Threat Perceptions. Deterrence Objectives, Comparative Strategy, 22:5, 515-520.
Karim Umer (2017). The Evolution of Saudi Foreign Policy and the Role of Decision-making Processes and Actors, The International Spectator, 52:2, 71-88
Larrabee Stephen (2002). US Middle East policy after 9/11: Implications for transatlantic relations. The International Spectator, 37:3, 43-56,
Neff Donald (1991). The U.S., Iraq, Israel, and Iran: Backdrop to War. Journal of Palestine Studies. Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 23-41.
Nye Joseph (1990). Twentieth Anniversary. Foreign Policy No. 80, pp. 153-171.
Ottaway David (2019). The King and Us - U.S.-Saudi Relations in the Wake of 9/11. Foreign Affair. 121.
Peretz Don (1991). The Impact of the Gulf War on Israeli and Palestinian Political Attitudes. Journal of Palestine Studies , Autumn, 1991, Vol. 21, No. 1 pp. 17-35.
Podeh Elie (2014). Israel and the Arab peace initiative, 2002-2014: A plausible missed opportunity. Middle East Journal Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 584-603.
Podeh Elie (2018). Saudi Arabia and Israel: From secret to public engagement 1948-2018. The Middle East journal volume 72, No 4.
Porat Guy & Mizarahi Shlomo (2005). Political culture, alternative politics and foreign policy: The case of Israel. Policy Sciences 38: 177–194.
Prados Alfred & Blanchard Christopher (2007). Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service
Rabi Uzi & Mueller Chelsi (2017) The Gulf Arab states and Israel since 1967: from ‘no negotiation’ to tacit cooperation. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 44:4, 576-592.
Rynhold Jonathan (2008). President Obama and the Middle East Challenge. BESA Center Perspectives Papers No. 50.
Rynhold Jonathan & Yaari Michal (2019). The quiet revolution in Saudi-Israeli relations, Mediterranean Politics.
Schweller Randall (1994). Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringing the Revisionist State Back In. International Security , Vol. 19, No. 1 pp. 72-107.
Siddiqa Arhama & Abbas Muhammad &Hassan Asad Ullah Khan(2019). Saudi – Israeli Nexus: Implications for Iran. Center for Iranian Studies in Ankara.
Stollman Elisheva (2004). Balancing Acts: The Gulf States and Israel. Middle Eastern Studies, 40:4, 185-208
Teitelbaum Joshua (2013). Saudi-Israeli relations: balancing legitimacy and security. Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies
Torrey Gordon & Devlin John (1965). Journal of International Affairs Vol. 19, No. 1, The Arab World: Paths to Modernization, pp. 47-62.
Ulrichsen Kristian (2016). Israel and the arab gulf states: drivers and direction of change. James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy of Rice University
Weiss Martin(2017). Arab League Boycott of Israel. Congressional Research Service
Yamani Mai (2008). The Two Faces of Saudi Arabia. Survival, 50:1, 143-156.
Zanotti Jim (2012). Israel: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service ,7-5700.
Zhao Weiming (2009). The New Middle East Policy of the Obama Administration. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia), 3:2, 12-24.
譚偉恩(2006),權力平衡理論之研究:現實主義的觀點,國際關係學報 第二十二期。

Gross Samantha (2017). The 1967 war and the oil weapon. 2019/12/1. Brookings.
Gross Samantha; Riedel Bruce; Pita Adrianna (2017). The 1967 war, the rise of Saudi Arabia, and modern energy politics. 2019/12/1. Brookings.
Matza Doron; Hoffman Adam (2019). From taboo to cooperation: Israel is changing relation with Arab World. 2020/12/16. LSE Middle East Center.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[中東與中亞研究碩士學位學程] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
000801.pdf3702KbAdobe PDF11View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing