Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title: ||工作要求－資源模式的效度考驗－以台灣企業員工為 例|
The Validation of Job Demands-Resources model- A case study of Taiwanese employees
Chien, Jia Jen
Hsu, Wen Yao
Chien, Jia Jen
Job Demands-Resources Model
|Issue Date: ||2015-07-01 15:07:17 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||工作要求－資源模型(JD-R model)為近年來受歡迎的工作壓力模型，並強調能適用進各工作場域，但多是以歐洲的員工為樣本來檢驗假設，故本研究以台灣企業員工為樣本，檢驗JD-R model，並釐清個人資源在模型中扮演的角色。以279 個台灣企業員工為樣本檢驗工作特徵、員工心理福祉、與表現的關係，並討論個人資源的角色。以階層迴歸分析檢驗的結果支持工作要求與工作資源能分別預測耗竭與投入，但兩者並無交互作用關係；又表現可由投入的程度來預測，耗竭對員工表現則無影響；除此之外，本研究亦發現個人資源對投入及角色內、角色外表現有直接效果、且與工作要求有交互作用關係。這些結果顯示以台灣員工檢驗JD-R model 時，無法完全支持其假設，但也發現個人資源在檢驗員工心理福祉的程度時有其作用及重要性。未來的研究可著重在討論文化因素是否造成差異。|
Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R model) is a popular work-stress related model that claims can be adapted into all-kinds of work environment, but tested mostly with
European employees. The current research intended to test the basic hypotheses of JD-R model with Taiwanese employees and to clarify the role of personal resources in the model. 279 Taiwanese employees are included in the tested sample to examine the relationship between job characteristics, employees’ well-being, and performance, and also have a discussion about the role of personal resources. The results of hierarchical regression analysis supported that job demands and job resources can predict exhaustion and engagement respectively. However, there is no interaction effect between job demands and job resources were found. Moreover, performance can be
predicted by engagement, while exhaustion can’t. Besides, the present research found that personal resources have direct effects on engagement, in-role performance,
out-role performance, and an interaction effect with job demands on exhaustion. These findings revealed that the basic hypotheses cannot be fully supported when tested with Taiwanese employees, but also indicated the effect and importance of personal resources while examine employees’ well being. Future research should focus more on the cultural factors to clarify whether culture do make differences.
|Reference: ||Alarcon, G. (2011). A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 79:549–62.|
Baba, V. V., Jamal, M., Tourigny, L. (1998) Work and mental health: A decade in Canadian Research. Canadian Psychology 38: pp. 94-107
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Dual processes at work in a call centre: An application of the job demands–resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12, 393–417.
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., De Boer, E. & Schaufeli, W.B. (2003), “Job demands and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 62, pp. 341-56.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Taris, T., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. (2003). A multi-group analysis of the job demands–resources model in four home care organizations. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 16 –38.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83–104.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 170–180.
Bakker, A.B., Heuven, E. (2006). Emotional dissonance, burnout, and in-role performance among nurses and police officers. Int. J. Stress Manag. 13:423–40
Bakker, A.B., van der Zee, K.I., Lewig, K.A., Dollard, M.F. (2006). The relationship between the Big Five personality factors and burnout: a study among volunteer counselors. Journal of Social Psychology 146 (1), 31–50.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 22, pp. 309-328
Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 274–284.
Bakker, A. B., Van Emmerik, H., & Van Riet, P. (2008). How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: A constructive replication. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 21, 309–324.
Bakker A.B. (2009). Building engagement in the workplace. In The Peak Performing Organization, ed. R.J., Burke, C.L., Cooper, pp. 50–72. London: Routledge.
Bakker, A. B., Van Veldhoven, M. J. P. M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the Demand-Control model: Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3–16.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti E. (2014). Job demands–resources theory. In Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, ed. C. Cooper, P. Chen, pp. 37–64. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Sanz-Vergel, A.I. (2014). Burnout and work engagement: the JD-R approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1, pp. 389-411.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Bezuidenhout, A., & Cilliers, F. (2011). Age, burnout, work engagement and a sense of coherence in female academics at the two South African universities. South African Journal of Labour Relations, 35(1), 61 – 80.
Borritz, M., Bu¨ltmann, U., Rugulies, R., Christensen, K., Villadsen, E., Kristensen, T. (2006). Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA study. J Occup Environ Med 47:1015–1025.
Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine.
Brenninkmeijer, V., Demerouti, E., Le Blanc, P., & Van Emmerik, H. (2010). Regulatory focus at work: The moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model. Career Development International, 15, 708–728.
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 70(1), 57-67.
Brough, P., Timms, C., Siu, O. L., Kalliath, T., O’Driscoll, &M., Sit, C. (2013). Validation of the Job Demands-Resources model in cross-national samples: Cross sectional and longitudinal predictions of psychological strain and work engagement. Human Relations, 66(10), 1311–1335.
Cavanaugh, M. A., Boswell, W. R., Roehling, M. V., & Boudreau, J. W. (2000). An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among US managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 65–74.
Chrisopoulos, S., Dollard, M. F., Winefield, A. H., & Dormann, C. (2010). Increasing the probability of finding an interaction in work-stress research: A two wave longitudinal test of the triplematch principle. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 17–37.
Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S., Slaughter, J.E. (2011). Work engagement: a quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Pers. Psychol. 64:89–136.
Costa, P. T., Jr, McCrae, R. R., & Zonderman, A. B. (1987). Environmental and dispositional influences on well-being: Longitudinal followup of an American national sample. British Journal of Psychology, 78,299-306.
Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking Job Demands and Resources to Employee Engagement and Burnout: A Theoretical Extension and Meta-Analytic Test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95 (5), 834-848.
Daniels, K., & de Jonge, J. (2010). Match-making and match-breaking: Exploring the nature of match within and around job design. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 1-16.
De Jonge, J., & Dormann, C. (2003). The DISC model: Demand-induced strain compensation mechanisms in job stress. In M. F. Dollard, H. R. Winefield, & A. H. Winefield (Eds.), Occupational stress in the service professions,pp. 43–74.
De Jonge, J., & Dormann, C. (2006). Stressors, resources, and strains at work: A longitudinal test of the Triple Match Principle. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1359–1374.
De Lange, A.H., Taris, T.W., Kompier, M.A.J., Houtman, I.L.D., & Bongers, P.M. (2003). The very best of the millennium: Longitudinal research and the demand-control-(support) model. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 8(4): 282–305.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands–resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499–512.
Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2006). Employee well-being and job performance: Where we stand and where we should go. Occupational health psychology: European perspectives on research, education and practice, Vol. 1, pp. 83111.
Demerouti, E., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). From thought to action: Employee work engagement and job performance. In: A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. New York: Psychology Press.
Etzion, D. (1984). Moderating Effect of Social Support on the Stress-Burnout Relationship, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 615-622.
Federici, R. A., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2011). Principal self-efficacy and work engagement: Assessing a Norwegian principal self-efficacy scale.Social Psychology of Education.doi:10.1007/s11218-011-9160-4.
Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am. Psychol. 56:218–26.
Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30, 159–166.
Gonza´lez-Roma, V., Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. & Lloret, S. (2006). Burnout and engagement: Independent factors or opposite poles? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 165174.
Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). How dentists cope with their job demands and stay engaged: The moderating role of job resources. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 113, 479–487.
Hakanen, J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495–513.
Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: Relationships with burnout, demands, resources and consequences. In A. B. Bakker & M.P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: The essential in theory and research, pp. 102−117. New York: Psychology Press.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524.
Hobfoll, S. E., & Shirom, A. (2001). Conservation of Resources Theory. In R. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior, pp. 57-80.
Hobfoll, S.E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 307-24.
Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 632–643.
Hockey, G. R. J. (1997). Compensatory control in the regulation of human performance under stress and high workload: A cognitive-energetical framework. Biological Psychology, 45, 73–93.
Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 16, No. 4, 4-21.
Hu, Q., Schaufeli, W.B., & Taris, T.W. (2011). The Job Demands-Resources model: An analysis of additive and joint effects of demands and resources. Journal of Vocational Behavior 79(1), pp.181–190.
Houkes, I., Janssen, P.P., de Jonge, J., Bakker, A.B., (2003). Personality, work characteristics, and employee well-being: a longitudinal analysis of additive and moderating effects. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 8, 20–38.
Isen, A. M., & Reeve, J. (2005). The influence of positive affect on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Facilitating enjoyment of play, responsible work behavior, and self-control. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 297–325.
Johnson, J. V. and Hall, E. M. (1988). Job Place Social Support, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Random Sample of the Swedish Working Population, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78(10), pp. 1336-1342.
Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151–188.
Kahn, R.L., & Byosserie, P. (1992). Stress in organizations. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 3, 571-650.
Kahn, R.L. (1979). World Economic Development. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Karasek, R.A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, pp.285-308.
Langelaan, S., Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W.B., & Van Doornen, L.J.P. (2006). Burnout and work engagement: Do individual differences make a difference? Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 521-532.
Lavoie-Tewmblay, M., Trepanier, S., Ferent, C. & Bonnevilleroussy, A. (2014) Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work. Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(2), 310–322.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123–133.
Leiter, M. P. (1993). Burnout as a developmental process: Consideration of models. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout. Recent developments in theory and research, pp. 237–250. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor– hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 764 –775.
Llorens, S., Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2007). Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exists? Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 825–841.
Lorente, L., Salanova, M., MARTÍNEZ, I. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Extension of the Job DemandsResources model in the prediction of burnout and engagement among teachers over time. Psicothema, 20, 354-360.
Luchman, J.N., & Gonza´lez-Morales, M.G. (2013). Demands, control, and support: a meta-analytic review of work characteristics interrelationships. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 37-52.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387–393.
Ma¨kikangas, A., Kinnunen, U., & Feldt, T. (2004). Self-esteem, dispositional optimism, and health: Evidence from cross-lagged data on employees. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 556–575.
Maslach, C. and Jackson, S. E. (1981). ‘The measurement of experienced burnout, Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 149–171.
Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. Handbook of work and organizational psychology, 2nd ed., pp. 5–33.
NIOSH (2002). The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: Knowledge gaps and research directions. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH Publications.
Ouweneel, E., Blanc, P. M. L., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Don’t leave your heart at home: Gain cycles of positive emotions, resources, and engagement at work. Career Development International, 17(6), 537–556. doi:10.1108/13620431211280123
Parkes, J. (1990). Coping, negative affectivity, and the work environment: additive and interactive predictors of mental health. J. Appl. Psychol. 75:399–409.
Pick, D., & Leiter, M. P. (1991). Nurses’ perceptions of the nature and causes of burnout: A comparison of self-reports and standardized measures. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 23, 33–48.
Reynolds, W.M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the MarloweCrowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119-135.
Robinette, R. L. (1991). The Relationship between the Marlowe-Crowne Form C and the Validity Scales of the MMPl. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 47, 396- 399.
Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., Sanz-Vergel, A.I., Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A.B. (2014). Engaged at work and happy at home: a spillover-crossover model. J. Happiness Stud. In press. doi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9421-3
Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J.M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate. J. Appl. Psychol. 90:1217–27.
Salanova, M., Lorente, L., Chambel, M.J., & Martínez, I.M. (2011). Linking transformational leadership to nurses’ extra-role performance: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement. J. Adv. Nurs. 67:2256–66.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293-315.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2006). About the role of positive and negative emotions in managers’ well-being: A study using the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale. Gedrag & Organisatie, 19, 323–244.
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893–917.
Schaufeli, W.B., Taris, T.W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health bridging occupational, organizational and public health. Springer, New York
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.
Shimazu, A., Shimazu, M., & Odahara, T. (2004). Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction. Psychological Reports 94(2): 449–456.
Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 25-48.
Shirom, A. and Melamed, S. (2005). Does burnout affect physical health? A review of the evidence. Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 599-622.
Siegrist, J. (1996). Adverse health effects of high effort–low reward conditions at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 27–43.
Sonnentag, S., & Zijlstra, F. R. (2006). Job characteristics and off-job activitys as predictors of need of recovery, well-being, and fatigue. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 330-530
Stansfeld, S. A., Shipley, M. J., Head, J., & Fuhrer, R. (2012). Repeated job strain and the risk of depression: Longitudinal analyses from the Whitehall II study. American Journal of Public Health, 102(12), 2360–2366.
Swann, W. B., Griffin, J. J., Predmore, S. C., & Gaines, B. (1987). The cognitive-affective crossfire: When self-consistency confronts selfenhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 881 - 889.
Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20, 316334.
Theorell, T., Karasek, R.A. (1996). Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 1:9–26
Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 230–240.
Tremblay, M. A., & Messervey, D. (2011). The job demands-resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(2), 1- 10.
Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., De Witte, H., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). Not all demands are equal: Differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the job demands-resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19, 735–759.
van den Tooren, M., & de Jonge, J. (2010). The role of matching job resources in different demanding situations at work: a vignette study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 39–54.
Van den Tooren, M., De Jonge, J., & Dormann, C. (2011). The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Model: Background, key principles, theoretical underpinnings, and extended empirical evidence. New challenges for a healthy workplace in human services, 13-59.
Van den Tooren, M., De Jonge, J. (2011). Job Resources and Regulatory Focus as Moderators of Short-Term Stressor-Strain Relations-A Daily Diary Study. Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol. 10(3):97–106.
Walster, E., Walster, G. W. & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: Theory and Research. Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
Williams, S. A., Wissing, M. P., Rothmann, S., & Temane, Q. M. (2010). Self-efficacy, work, and psychological outcomes in a public service context. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 20(1), 43–52.
Wolfram, M., Bellingrath, S., Feuerhahn, N., Kudielka, B. M. (2013). Emotional exhaustion and overcommitment to work are differentially associated with hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a low-dose ACTH1–24 (Synacthen) and dexamethasone–CRH test in healthy school teachers. The International Journal on the Biology of Stress Vol. 16(1), pp. 54-64.
Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (1997). The contribution of burnout to work performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 491–499.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 121–141.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 235−244.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., &Fischbach, A. (2013). Work Engagement among Employees Facing Emotional Demands. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(2), 74-84.
Yang, N., Chen, C. C., Choi, J., & Zou, Y. (2000). Sources of work–family conflict: A Sino-U.S. comparison of the effects of work and family demands. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 113–123.
Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0101172002|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[輔導與諮商碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.