Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
The Effects of Task-Based Activities on Elementary Students' English Reading Comprehension
Chen, Ying Fen
Yu, Ming Chung
Chen, Ying Fen
English learning attitudes
|Issue Date:||2016-03-01 10:55:42 (UTC+8)|
This study investigated the effects of task-based activities on elementary students’ English reading comprehension and their attitudes towards English learning.
The participants were fifty fourth-grade students from a public elementary school in Taipei. They were divided into two groups. The two groups were similar regarding numbers, gender, prior experiences with formal English instruction, reading performance and English Learning Attitudes. The students in the experimental group received TBLT instruction while the students in the control group received PPP instruction. Both groups received 80 minutes instruction per week. After a twelve-week instruction, the post-test of the revised reading comprehension test (RRCTCYLE) and the post-study English Learning Attitudes Questionnaire (ELA) were administered to both groups. The mean scores gathered from the post-test of the RRCTCYLE test, and those of the post-study ELA questionnaire were analyzed through independent samples t-tests. The results showed the students in the experimental group performed significantly better on the post-test than the students in the control group. The experimental group also demonstrated more positive attitudes towards English learning than the control group. It is hoped that the findings of this present study could provide English teachers with some practical suggestions on how to use task-based activities to improve students’ reading abilities. Last, some suggestions for future research were also offered.
Keywords: task-based teaching, reading comprehension, English learning attitudes
Allport, G.W. (1935). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology. Worcester, Mass: Clark University Press.
Anderson, N. A. Teaching Reading as a Life Skill. The Reading Teacher, 42 (October 1988), 92.
Anderson, N. J. (2003). Teaching reading. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Practical English language teaching (pp.67-86). New York: Mc.Graw Hill Publishers.
Astika G. (2005). A task-based approach to reading English for specialized purposes. EA Journal 22(2), 22-35.
Barnet, M. (1989). What do first language reading theory and research mean for foreign language readers. In M. Barnet, More Than Meets the Eye, pp 1-35.
Brewster, J. & Ellis G with Girard D. (2002). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide, Pearson Education Limited.
Brown, H. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. 4th ed. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (Eds.). (2001). Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing. London, UK: Longman.
Cairney, T.H. (1990). Teaching reading comprehension: Meaning makers at work. Milton Keynes (UK): Open University Press.
Candlin, C. (2001). Afterword: taking the curriculum to task. In M. Bygate, P. Kehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: second language learning, teaching and testing (p229-243). Essex: Pearson Education.
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Carless, D. R. (2002). Implementing task-based learning with young learners. English Language Teaching Journal, 56(4), 389-396.
Carless, D. R. (2003). Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary school. System, 31(4), 485-500.
Carless, D. R. (2004). Issues in teachers’ re-interpretation of a task-based innovation in primary schools. TESOL Quarterly, 38 (4), 639-622.
Carless, D. R. (2007). The suitability of task-based approaches for secondary schools: Perspectives from Hong Kong. System, 35 (4), 595-608.
Carless, D. (2008). Student use of the mother tongue in the task-based classroom. English Language Teaching Journal, 62(4), 331-338.
Carless, D. (2009). Revisiting the TBLT versus P-P-P debate: Voices from Hong Kong. Asian Journal of English Language teaching, 19, 49-66.
Carless, D. (2012). TBLT in EFL settings: looking back and moving forward. In A. Shehadeh & C. Coombe (Eds.), Task-based Language Learning and Teaching in EFL Contexts: Research and Implementation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Carrell, P. L. & Eisterhold, J. C. (1983). Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553-73.
Chall, J.S. and Jacobs, V.A. (2003). Poor Children's Fourth-Grade Slump. American Educator, Spring, 2003. Retrieved Oct. 24, 2007, from http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/spring2003/chall.html.
Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second-language skills theory and practice (3rd ed.). FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Chen, C-Y. (2006). An Exploratory Study of How EFL Junior High School Students Develop L2 Literacy through Task-Based Reading-to-Writing Instruction, (Master’s thesis), National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Chen, Y-F. (2004). Reading Module, Elementary English Teacher’s Resource Pack (Ed.), Taipei Education Bureau & British Council (pp. 9-48)
Chou, P-Y. (2007). A Research on Developing Young EFL Learners’ L2 Literacy through Task-Based Reading-to-Writing Instruction (Master’s thesis). National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Chu, H-M. (2003). Teaching Beginning English L2 Readers: Looking into English Curricula in East Asian countries. Unpublished thesis, National Taiwan Normal University. Taiwan, Taipei.
Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman & R.R. Jordan (Eds.), Reading in a second language (pp. 5-12). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Crookes, G. (1986). 'Task classification: a cross-disciplinary review.' Technical Report No. 4, Honolulu: Center for Second Language Classroom Research, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii.
Curriculum Development Council. (1997). Syllabuses for primary schools: English language primary 1-6. Hong Kong SAR, China: Government Printer.
Curriculum Guidelines of Elementary English Language Teaching and Learning (2010). The Department of Education, Taipei City Government, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of Education of Taipei City (2007). English Curriculum Guidelines of Elementary Schools in Taipei City. Taipei, Taiwan: Department of Education
Ediger, A. (2001). Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language. In Celce-Murcia M.(Eds.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, (3rd ed.).
Ellis, R. (2000). Task-based research and language pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 4, 3-4
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 19(3):221-246
Fan Chiang, Y-C. (2005). The Effectiveness of Implementing Task-Based Instruction in a Primary School in Taiwan. (Unpublished Master’s thesis), Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Foster, P., & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299–323
Gagne, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction (4th Ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Goodman, K. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In Gollasch, F.V. (Ed.). Language and literacy: The selected writings of Kenneth S. Goodman. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Goodman K. S. (1971). Psycholinguistic universals in the reading process. In The psychology of second language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 135.
Grabe, W.(1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly 25(3):375-406.
Green, C. (2005). Integrating extensive reading in the task-based curriculum, ELT Journal 59 (4), 306-311.
Grellet, F.(1981). Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gove, M. (1983) “Clarifying Teachers’ Beliefs About Reading.” The Reading Teacher, 37, 261-268.
Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E.R.(1985). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial method. New York: Longman.
Hsu, N-H. (2003). The impacts of the Internet Task-Based Activity on the Development of Students’ Reading and Writing Ability in an Elementary School Classroom. (Unpublished MA Thesis), National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan.
Hudson, T. (1982). The effects of induced schemata on the “short circuit” in L2 reading: Non-decoding factors in L2 reading performance. Language Learning, 32 (1), 1-25.
James, M. O. (1987). ESL reading pedagogy: Implication of schema-theoretical research. In J. Devine, O. L. Carrel & D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Research in reading in English as a second language (p177-88). Washington, D.C.: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language.
Keyvanfar A. & Modarresi M. (2009). The Impact of Task-based Activities on the Reading Skill of Iranian EFL Young Learners at the Beginner Level. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2.1, 81-102
Lai, J. (1997). Reading Strategies: a study guide. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lee, S-M. (2005). The pros and cons of task-based instruction in elementary English classes. English Teaching 60.2, 185-205
Littlewood, W. (2004). The task-based approach: Some questions and suggestions. ELT Journal, 58(4), 319-326.
Littlewood, W. (2007). Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching, 40(3), 243-249.
Long, M. (1985). 'A role for instruction in second language acquisition: task-based language teaching' in K. Hyltenstam and M. Pienemann (eds.): Modelling and Assessing Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Murphy, J. (2003). Task-based learning: The interaction between tasks and learners. ELT Journal, 57 (4), 352-360.
Ministry of Education (Taiwan) (undated). General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School Education. http://english.moe.gov.tw/public/Attachment/66618445071.doc.
Nahavandi , N. (2011). The Effect of Task-based Activities on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 2, 56-69. doi:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.2n.1p.56
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. London: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Nunan, D. (2001). What is task-based language teaching? English Teacher’s Association. 16-18, 66-72.
Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on education policies And practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. London: Cambridge University Press.
Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Nuttall, C (1996). Teaching Reading Skills in a foreign language. Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Pica, T. (1994). Research on Negotiation: What does it reveal about second language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, 44(3), 493 – 527.
Prabhu, N. (1987). Second language pedagogy: A perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Richards, J. C. & Rogers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2nd Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roe, B. D. & Smith, S. H. & Burns, P. C. (2005). http://www.amazon.com/Teaching-Reading-Todays-Elementary-Schools/dp/0618349006/ref=dp_ob_title_bk - # Teaching Reading in Today's Elementary Schools (9th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.
Schwarz, N. and Bohner, G. (2001) The Construction of Attitudes, in Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intraindividual Processes (eds A. Tesser and N. Schwarz), Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden, Massachusetts, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470998519.ch20
Schneider, D.(2004). Reading and TOEIC Test Preparation: A Task-based Approach for Underprepared Learners, Journal of Aomori Public College. 9(2) pp.57-83
Seedhouse, P. (1999). Task-based interaction. ELT Journal, 53(3):149-156.
Skehan, P. (1998a). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P. (1998b). Task-based instruction. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18: 268–86
Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based Instruction. Language Teaching. Cambridge: Jan 2003. Vol. 36, Iss. 1; p. 1-14.
Scott. W. A. & Ytreberg. L. H. (1990A). Teaching English to Children. Longman: London Newyork.
Swaffar, J. K. (1988). Readers, texts, and second languages: The interactive process.
Modern Language Journal, 72, 123-149.
Swaffar, J., Arens, K., and Byrones, H. (1991). Reading for Meaning: an integrated approach to language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Tilfarlioglu F.Y. & Basaran S. (2007). Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Task-Based Writing Activities: An Experimental Study. The Reading Matrix. 7(3)
Tsai, H-Y. (2007) A Study on the Influence of Task-Based Learning on Primary Students in English Vocabulary Learning, (Master’s thesis), University of Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tseng, C-Y. (2006). A Study of the Effect of Task-based Instruction on Primary School EFL Students, (Master’s thesis), National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Urquhart, A. H., & Weir, C. J. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice. London and New York: Longman.
Wallace, C. (1992). Reading: Oxford:Oxford University Press
Weir, C. J. & Urquhart, A. H. (1998). Reading in a Second Language: Process, Product and Practice. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Willis, J. (1996). A framework for Task-based Learning. Harlow: Longman Person Education.
Willis, D. & Willis, J. (2007). Doing Task-based Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
|Appears in Collections:||[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.