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Title: 禮尚往來中的「敵對互仿」: 吉哈爾論禮物
Other Titles: Rene Girard's Thoughts about the Mimetic Rivalry in the Rite of Gift Exchange
Authors: 林德祐
Lin, Te-yu
Keywords: 擬仿慾望;雙重中介;主體間性;禮物儀式;敵對雙胞
Mimetic desire;Double mediation;Inter-subjectivity;Rite of gift exchange;Rivalry twins
Date: 2012-03
Issue Date: 2016-08-18 17:32:49 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 法國文學批評家、人類學家吉哈爾(René Girard)、「仿效慾望」(désir mimétique)的觀點探討人際關係隱藏的敵對性。對他而言, 敵對性並非來自差異的兩道個體,而是來自慾望的雷同與複製,因為慾望的仿效導致相異性消弭,造成主客體界線的鬆動,危及「主體間性」(intersubjectivité),進而導致雙胞式的敵對衝突。本文試圖探討吉哈爾對人際互動的詮釋,進一步以此理論詮釋禮物這種禮儀文化下的餽贈與回禮行為暗含的「敵對互仿」(rivalité mimétique),探討複尚往來背後弔詭的相互性。首先,我們鋪展吉氏的「三角慾望」理論,即慾望「從他性」,以及仿效行為作祟下的敵對情結。其次,我們辨析慾望機制中「雙重中介」(double médiation)的形成,雙重中介的情境使原本涇渭分明的主體與客體不再有區別,將兩者變為如影隨形、相互較勁的「偽」主體(或「準」主體),暴力遂扶搖直上,不可扼抑。吉哈爾對禮物的詮釋便是立基上述兩點。從吉氏的觀點來看,禮物的矛盾在於:它必須同時具備「差異性」與「同質性」。差異性的需求源自「主體間性」對相異性消解的恐慌;同質性則又來自共同體中個體相互仿效的需求。禮物儀式之中潛存著這兩個相互矛盾的規則,既是一種人際關係的拉近,也是一種「相互性」的解套。整體觀之,支配禮物的規則縝密細膩,這些規則試圖符合相互性與對等性(平等性)的原則,同時又必須與「差異性」的需求調和。透過吉氏對禮物文化的析論,我們可以從文明起源的角度了解儀式機制的運作與消解,也可理解禮物在現代社會中的有效性與弔詭的特性。
From the perspective of mimetic desire, the French critic and humanist Rene Girard discussed the implicit rivalry that exists in interpersonal relationships. Girard considered such rivalry to be generated rather by the similarity and reproduction of human desire than from the differences of two individuals. The effect of mimetic desire results in appropriation and the disappearance of differences, and the disorder of the desire operation, in the subject-object form, loosens the line between “to be” a subject and “to possess” an object; thus, inter-subjectivity becomes endangered and the conflicts between twin rivals become engendered. Based on Girard’s interpretation of human relationships, this paper discusses and reinterprets this paradox under the rite of gift exchange, as well as examines the mechanism of mimetic rivalry behind mutual exchanges. Firstly, this paper explores Girard’s theory of triangular desire and the role of the follower in mimetic behavior, as well as the rivalry complex. Secondly, this paper analyzes the formation of double mediation in the desire mechanism. In the context of double mediation, the differences between the object and the subject vanish, and they become the same form, imitating each other. Through this transformation they both become false subjects, causing the violence between them to increase irreversibly. The above mentioned constitutes Girard’s interpretation of the culture of the present. From Girard’s point of view, the paradox in the rite of gift exchange is about the coexistence of differences and the similarities. The need for differences comes from the fear of the disappearance of difference; similarity originates from the need for mimetic action between individuals. This implicit paradox exists in the rite of gift exchange, which could be considered as a way to pull human relationships closer, as well as a solution to maintain reciprocity. Overall, the refined rule behind the rite of gift exchange meets the need for reciprocity and justice, as well as the need for differentiation in human society. Through Girard’s analysis of the rite of gift exchange, we can comprehend the mechanism of the ceremony and its revolution from the origin of culture, as well as its economy and contradictions in modern society.
Relation: 文化越界,1(7),73-94
Cross-cultural Studies
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[文化越界 ] 期刊論文

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