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Title: 19-20世紀中國人在開發西伯利亞與俄羅斯遠東地區之角色
Other Titles: The Role of Chinese in Developing Siberia and Russia's Far East in the 19(superscript th) and 20(superscript th) Centuries
Authors: 季諾飛也夫
Date: 2002-02
Issue Date: 2016-08-30 14:27:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 西伯利亞及遠東地區爲歐亞天候最嚴寒地區,由於商業人士及沙皇軍隊軍事征討結果於17至19世紀間歸附俄羅斯,由於當地居民人口數量少,社會經濟發展水準較低無法做出實際的抵抗,濱海邊區最後才歸附。
Siberia and Russia's Far East are the most frigid places in Europe and Asia. During the period between the 17(superscript th) and 19(superscript th) centuries Siberia submitted to Russia as a result of military incursion. Because of sparse population and low-level of social-economic development, there could not be substantial resistance. The coastal areas were conquered last.
Chinese (the Han) used to be few and between in this area until the 19(superscript th) century. Only a number of Manchurians came to collect taxes here. In the 1870s, Chinese were permitted to settle in Manzhouli. Until early 20(superscript th) century, the population had grown more than ten times in that area. The Ching dynasty regarded migration as the only way to resist Russian expansion.
Since then, Chinese merchants and labors were not unusual in this area. Most engaged in mining, construction, and fisheries. According to official data in 1910, the number was 93,000. In World War I, 36 percent of the defense construction laborers in Siberia were foreigners, mostly Chinese.
Although the economic development of Russian's Far East would be extremely difficult without the participation of Chinese, to many political critics and officials, the Chinese, who were unlikely to be integrated into the local society and culture, posed a serious threat to Russia's interests in its far east. There was a vast literature on this subject, including Sorokina, 1999. The Chinese's Economic Activities in the Russia's Far East and the Policy toward the Heilongjiang River border area at the turn of the 20(superscript th) century. Omsk: Russia, 3-20; Soloviev, 1989. Chinese Odd-Job Workers in Russia's Far East in China's Capitalist Period (1861-1917). Moscow; Zinov'yev. 1996. ”The Chinese and Korean Miners in Siberia at the turn of the 20(superscript th) century,” in The Study of Economic Historical Issues in Russia from 18(superscript th) to 20(superscript th) Century, Omsk: 79-106.
The Sino-Russian War led to an extended halt of Chinese migration into Russia's Far East. With the normalization of Sino-Russian relations, Chinese resumed to infiltrate into the Russian territory. Illegal immigration, illegal fishery, bootlegging and peddling re-emerged, as they did a century ago. Media repeatedly called to the public’s attention of the so-called ”Yellow peril.” At the time, Russia was powerful, while China was weak and ridden by crises. However, as the table turned, Russia is disturbed by crises, while China is experiencing rapid development.
Under the circumstance, what can we do in order not to sacrifice the interests of either side? And what can Taiwan exert any influence on that? These are not simple questions. Nevertheless, there are some self-evident solutions. For example, Russia has the rich natural resource (mainly carbon-hydro) that is badly needed in economic development. Yet, it is in need of gas and oil pipelines. We need a proposal that can interest potential customers who have capitals, such as Japan and Taiwan. A most feasible route can be from Yamal Peninsula to Northern China or to Russia's Far East, to supply natural gas to Japan or Taiwan.
Relation: 俄羅斯學報, 2, 291-310
Journal of Russian studies
Vestnik instituta rossii
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯學報] 期刊論文

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