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Title: 俄羅斯人才外流之成因與影響分析
Authors: 黃佳玲
Huang, Chia-Ling
Keywords: 俄羅斯;人才;人才外流;國際移民
Russia;Highly Skilled;Brain Drain;International Migration
Date: 2008-12
Issue Date: 2016-08-30 14:45:38 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 隨著日益提昇的全球化概念深植每個社會當中,「國際移民」(international migration) 遂扮演著具重要性的角色。在這樣的背景下,受過高等教育,並擁有專業技能的人才在國際間的移動、移民,便成為自然發展的結果,也就是今日大家所熟知的「人才外流」現象。 號稱僅次於美國諾貝爾物理獎領域的得主人數,甚至被高盛集團列入所謂的「BRICs四國」且在2050年時成為世界第六大經濟體的俄羅斯,自1991年蘇聯政府解體以來,政府管制的自由化,使得俄羅斯的科學界得以與國際市場中的科學領域取得聯繫,也造成了俄羅斯人才的開始外移。特別是受過良好教育與訓練且具有專業水準的高科技、高技能人才,一方面由於俄羅斯對人才移動的控制力減退,另一方面也因為俄羅斯國內無法提供這些高級知識份子足夠的薪資,使得人才的大量外流,無疑地,對國家的利益造成很大的損害。因此人口移民的議題,近十年來成為俄羅斯影響社會經濟和政治發展的重要因素。 本文就俄羅斯人才外流之原因與影響作深入探討,期能對俄羅斯之人口議題有進一步之瞭解。
Under the rising concept of globalization toward the life of society, international migration is increasingly playing a significant role. One natural consequence of this is the increased pace of the migration of scientific cadres among countries, the emergence of a specific phenomenon known as “brain drain”. Russia, only next to America, which has the most Nobelists in physical field, are listed in the BRICs by the Goldman Sachs and are about to become a big economic country in 2050. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the liberalization of government on the exit and the elimination of the “closed character” of scientific communities have brought about active connection between Russia and the international market of science cadres. Those migrants are especially people with good-education and hi-tech skills. One reason for this is the losing control of the Russian government on brain drain; on the other hand, low salary is another crucial reason that pushes out those talents from Russia. Undoubtedly, this causes huge loss on the benefit of country. So, the topic “migration of population” becomes an important factor that affects the social economy and political development in the recent decade. By discussing the cause and effect, thus we can deeply understand the phenomenon of brain drain in a Russian perspective, significantly.
Relation: 俄羅斯學報, 9, 121-172
Journal of Russian studies
Vestnik instituta rossii
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯學報] 期刊論文

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