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Title: 日本茶道における飲食文化について -懐石料理を中心に-
The Dietary Culture in Japanese Tea Ceremony -Kaiseki-ryouri as an Example
Authors: 傅琪貽
Keywords: 「懷石料理(kaiseki-lyouri)」;「茶事(chya-ji)」;禪宗;「一期一會(itigo-itie)」;粗食
Date: 2008-01
Issue Date: 2016-08-30 16:25:35 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「懷石料理(kaiseki-lyouri)」是日本料理的代名詞,也是日本美食文化的精華。的確是,經過近代百年的料理的發展與人類追求美好人生的催促之下,原本是在禪宗寺院簡樸飲食「一汁三菜」中,逐漸發展出來。日本「茶道(sadou/chadou)」在「茶事(chya-ji)」的流程當中也引進禪宗的「一汁三菜」與其精神主義。本文僅從「茶事(chya-ji)」中如何定位此禪味十足的「一汁三菜」,並試論從「一汁三菜」的簡樸飲食中發掘所隱藏的日本傳統飲食文化的身影與其意義。 「茶事(chya-ji)」中食用「懷石料理」顯示「亭主(te-syu)」不但用心準備,還體貼地為客人一一端出,從頭到尾專心扮演著伺候的角色。因為每道料理的量不多,一般客人會全部吃完。酒也最多喝三杯。其中最大的特色,是料理的開頭時,先吃頓飯。這是因為「折敷(osiki)」(膳)本身是祭典時用於供神的食器,而主要是以白米飯與茶(佛事)或白米飯與酒(神事)來祭拜。可見「茶事(chya-ji)」中的「懷石料理」保存著自古以來,日本人用來祭拜神靈的儀式。 本文是因為作者平時習修茶道,對此領域略解若干,所以藉此機會整理平時所累積的感受與經驗。加上茶道本身已經相當程度地形式化,所以本文重點為整合與解釋,希望本文對日本飲食文化理解有所幫助。
Kaiseki-ryouri is the essence of Japanese gourmet, and is also the representative of Japanese delicacies in general. With ongoing development over the last century and the mankind’s own instinct to pursue an exquisite lifestyle, the primarily unembellished diet of "one soup, three sides" from the Zen monastery has developed gradually into the modern day kaiseki-ryouri. The Japanese sadou (also called chadou, refers to the way of tea) in the chya-ji (refers to a full tea ceremony with kaiseki) development process has also been affected by the spirit of Zen’s "one soup, three sides" diet. This article will deal with the position of the "one soup, three sides" diet in the chya-ji, as well as discuss the form and meaning of the traditional Japanese dietary culture hidden behind the simple diet of "one soup, three sides". Having kaiseki-ryouri during chya-ji, displays the te-syu (refers to the master or host of the ceremony)’s attentive preparation, as well as the consideration towards serving guests dish by dish and the ministering role from the start of the meal to the end. Because the quantity of food is small, guests will generally be able to complete the entire meal, in addition to three glasses of wine, at most. The most distinguishing feature of kaiseki-ryouri is the eating of rice before the rest of the meal. This is owing to the meaning of osiki itself being the tool for Gods when holding a memorial ceremony. The God would be offered rice and tea (for a Buddhist service) or rice and wine (for a deity service). It is clear that through kaiseki-ryouri in chya-ji, the essence of such traditional Japanese deity worshipping ceremonies has been preserved. The author has long practiced sadou and has a keen understanding of this field, so is thus taking the opportunity to organize the accumulated understanding and experience of sadou. Sadou itself is already rather formalized; hopefully this article will help people to gain a much more clear understanding of Japanese dietary culture through the organization and explanation of it.
Relation: 政大日本研究,第五號,119-138
Chengchi journal of Japanese studies
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[第5號] 期刊論文

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