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Title: 數位著作授權契約對第一次銷售原則之影響與濫用原則之適用
Other Titles: Applying Copyright First Sale Doctrine and Misuse Doctrine to the License Agreement of Digital Copyrighted Work
Authors: 胡心蘭
Hu, Hsin-Lan
Keywords: 第一次銷售原則;使用者授權協議;軟體授權協議;先占;著作權濫用原則
First Sale Doctrine;End User License Agreements (EULAs);Software License Agreement (SLA);Preemption;Copyright Misuse Doctrine
Date: 2014-12
Issue Date: 2016-08-31 17:11:21 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 近年間,美國法院針對「第一次銷售原則(first sale doctrine)」,或稱「權利耗盡原則(doctrine of exhaustion)」,有兩項重大的爭議:其一為授權契約可否限縮第一次銷售原則之適用;另一則為第一次銷售原則與平行輸入的關係。在2013年,美國最高法院判決JohnWiley&Sons一案確立採國際耗盡原則之前,著作重製物之製造地大大的影響了第一次銷售原則之適用結果。另在有關授權契約可否限縮第一次銷售原則之適用的議題,美國第九巡迴上訴法院在2010年至2011年間做成三件有關電腦軟體、數位音樂著作等之散布行為涉及第一次銷售原則適用性之案例,均承認該等限制使用者移轉著作重製物之授權契約的有效性,配合著作權人現行之授權模式,勢必壓縮未來著作權法第一次銷售原則之適用於數位著作或電腦程式之空間,並削弱第一次銷售原則之功能,對著作使用者與消費者而言恐有不利之影響,以致有著作權濫用的疑慮。由於發生在美國法上之相關案例與討論較完整,是以本文將以美國法為主,首先解釋第一次銷售原則之背景與定義,提出第一次銷售原則於著作權法領域乃至於著作權競爭市場上之重要性。接者,本文將就美國巡迴上訴法院所做之數個有關軟體授權協議之判決予以簡介與討論,並突顯該等判決結果勢必壓縮未來著作權法第一次銷售原則之適用於數位著作或電腦程式之空間,並削弱第一次銷售原則之功能,對著作使用者與消費者而言恐有不利之影響。因此,為尋回著作權法原本精心設計之平衡,本文將嘗試以「著作權濫用原則」來約束著作權人過分擴張之權利。然因我國著作權法法制與實務對於著作權濫用原則尚屬陌生,故本文將以建議修法之模式提出我國著作權法之因應。
As first appeared in the 1908 U.S. Supreme Court case Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, and then codify in the section 41 of 1909 Copyright Act, the First Sale Doctrine has an irreplaceable juridical value of "balance [ing] the artist's right to control her work ⋯ and the public's need for access...." Furthermore, first sale doctrine also closely related to the daily life of general public, such as second hand market transactions or online auctions. However, copyright owners of software and computer games currently employ the business method of "licensing" to replace "actual sale", therefore circumvent the application of first sale doctrine. Copyright owner claimed that, what consumer gained is a license to use the copyrighted software or computer game. Consumers did not obtain the ownership of that copy through purchasing. Therefore, when consumer pressing the "I agree" button appears on the computer screen while install the software or computer game, that consumer hence bound by the "End User License Agreements, EULAs" or "Software License Agreement, SLA" which generally come with many restrictions on the usage and transfer of said software or computer game. Witnessing such unfavorable practice employed by the copyright owners, this study will first introduce the background and the importance of first sale doctrine. Next, illustrated by several U.S. Appellate Courts' cases, along with the widespread licensing practice adopted by copyright owners, this study will emphasize the adverse impacts to the continuous existence of the first sale doctrine in the digital age. Finally, for reconstructing the "balance between the artist's right to control her work and the public's need for access," this study intent to induce Copyright Misuse Doctrine into digital copyrighted works licensing circumstances. In the first copyright misuse case, Lasercomb America, Inc. v. Reynolds, which states that "The question is not whether the copyright is being used in a manner violative of antitrust law, but whether the copyright is being used in a manner violative of the public policy embodied in the grant (copyright owner) of a copyright." Keeping this rationale in mind, this study will try to apply Copyright Misuse Doctrine to constraint the overexpanding rights of copyright owners via the practicing of EULAs/SAL.
Relation: 政大智慧財產評論, 12(2), 47-98
NCCU Intellectual Property Review
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[智慧財產評論] 期刊論文

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