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Title: 明代衛所與六部、督撫關係之研究
Other Titles: The Wei-So System of the Ming Dynasty Relations with Lu-Pu, Tu-Fu
Authors: 劉振仁
Liu, Chen-Jen
Keywords: 衛所制度;六部;督撫;官僚組織;軍事制度
Wei-So System;Lu-Pu;Tu-Fu;Bureaucratic Organization;Military System
Date: 2002-07
Issue Date: 2016-09-29 17:37:03 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 衛所為明代軍事制度的基本單位,大體上由衛與所組成。衛分為京衛與外衛。京衛又可分為上直衛、南京衛、北京衛,分別隸屬君主、五軍都督府;外衛則分別隸屬於各都司、行都司或留守司。京衛、外衛下面的組織單位則是所,所分千戶所與百戶所。百戶所下有總旗二十人、小旗百人。舉凡軍政事項,乃由衛傳達到所,再由千戶督百戶、百戶下總旗、小旗,各自統率軍士聽令。六部、督撫為廣義官僚組織之一。所謂官僚組織,一般係指負責制訂、執行行政事務的機關,在明代當中,以吏、戶、禮、兵、刑、工六部最為重要。根據本文研究發現:明代衛所,因其本身為軍事組織的基層單位,故在實際運作上,除與其上級機關,如五軍都督府、都司,發生上下聯繫及指揮監督的關係外;在官僚組織中,由於戶、禮、兵、刑、工等部,負責掌管政府政策的執行,故在相關軍事業務上,衛所常須稟其命執行相關業務;另明代太僕寺負責馬政的相關事項,在專制王朝時期,馬政往往與軍事行動良窳密不可分。地方層級的督撫,從中後期之後,逐漸取代一般地方官,其職權甚至涵蓋地方一切民政行政庶務,其作為跟地方衛所間,更是產生直接的關連。總體來說,明代包括六部、大理寺、督撫等在內的官僚組織,其對衛所的控制相當嚴密,故相對而言,明代衛所的自主性相當地低;而因六部等各機關間的職權劃分不甚明確,故缺乏效率乃是當時最明顯之寫照。類似問題始終無法獲得解決,一直到明帝國滅亡為止。
The Wei-so is the basic unit of Ming dynasty of military system. It is composed by wei(衛)and so(所). The wei divides into jing-wei(京衛) with yi- wei(外衛). Jing-wei can divide into ch'in-chun wei(親軍衛), nanjing-wei, beijing-wei separately subordinates the empires and wu chun tu-tu fu(五軍都督 府). Yi-wei then separately subordinates at each tu-ssu(都司), shi tu-ssu(行都 司) or liu shou-ssu(留守司) Jing-wei, yi-wei organization unit then is so divides ch'ien-hu so(千戶所) and po-hu so(百戶所). Under po-hu so have tsung- chi(總旗) 20 person, sheuy-chi(小旗) hundred people. All military administration event is transmitted institute by Wei again is so; po-hu so under tsung-chi, pennant by ch'ien-hu so individually commands sergeant obeys orders. Bureaucrat organizes generally is refers to responsible for to draw up, carries out administration institution. The lu-pu(六部) of the Ming dynasty is most important by li(吏), hu(戶), leel(禮), bin(兵), shin(刑), gau(工). Studies discovery according to this article: the Wei-so is the Ming dynasty because of it itself for military organization's basic unit therefore in actual operation except if higher organ like wu chun tu-tu fu, tu-ssu all takes charge of occurs about relation and outside direction surveillance relations. Organizes in bureaucrat as a result of hu, leel, bin, shin, gau Pu and so on execution which responsibly governs government policy therefore at correlation military affairs service the wei-so often must report its life execution correlation service. In addition the Tai-bur shis(太僕寺) is responsible for horse politics connected event in despotic dynasty time horse politics quality is often dense with military action can not to divide. Local level tsung-tu(總督) and hsun-fu(巡撫), gradually substitutes for general local official from center later period its authority even contains covers place all civil administration it takes for with local wei-so more is produces direct correlation. To sum up, the lu-pu, tu-fu of the Ming dynasty is quite strict control on wei- so. Therefore the independency of wei-so is low. The division is not very clear that the functions of each institution, therefore lacked efficiency is most obviously.
Relation: 國立政治大學學報, 84, 227-266
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[第84期] 期刊論文

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