|Abstract: ||The Hong Kong electoral system changed from a ”double-seat, double-vote” system in 1991, to a single-member plurality system in 1995, and a proportional representation system in 1998. The frequent change in the electoral system reflects the changing interests of the executive branch and/or the sovereign master to engineer a certain balance in the Legislative Council(Legco). The electoral systems were constantly reshaped by various political actors in Hong Kong to further their own political interests.|
The change in the electoral system was accompanied by change in the party system in Hong Kong. The challenge of the democrats after the 1991 Legco elections accelerated the formation of other parties. The years 1993-95 saw the beginning of multiparty competition and cooperation in the legislature. By seizing about half of the seats in the 1995 elections, the democrats managed to propose alternative policies in the Legco and put pressure on the colonial government in the years 1995-97.
The change to a proportional representation system in 1998 brought fragmentation to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(HKSAR) legislature, with mutual vetoes becoming more frequent. This fragmentation disallowed the political parties to propose alternative policies in the legislature, and perpetuates the ”executive-dominant” nature of the Hong Kong political system.