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Title: 一九四○年代台灣日語小說之成立與台北帝國大學
Other Titles: The Establishment of the Japanese-Language Fiction in Taiwan in the 1940s and Taipei Imperial University
Authors: 張文薰
Chang, Wen-Hsun
Keywords: 台北帝國大學;東洋學;日語小說;西川滿;黃得時
Date: 2011-12
Issue Date: 2016-10-21 14:12:00 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 台灣現代小說在二○年代正式現身,歷經1937 年漢文欄廢止而導致的「空白期」,於四○年代初西川滿《文藝臺灣》、張文環《臺灣文學》相繼創刊而復甦,其條件則是日本之大政翼贊運動對殖民地文化政策的影響,以及台灣人知識分子對此文化政策加以轉化利用的結果,這樣的歷時性敘述已成目前文學史定說。本論文的問題意識來自對這樣的定說將過度強調以西川滿為代表的「內地人」文藝活動的主動侵略性質,同時導致四○年代以後「內地人」的所有文學活動是為依傍國策或「皇民化運動」而起的本質性論述之質疑。將透過《臺大文學》等文藝雜誌的引入、藉由「文藝場域」的分析視角,探討「內地人」、「台灣人」二分文壇的現象產生過程中,共有文化資本成為其形成基礎的可能性。本論文以台北帝大教授島田謹二與四○年代文壇重要領導者西川滿、黃得時的人際、學歷脈絡之探循,剖析學院勢力在文壇形成過程中的介入與引導能量,甚至可能超越戰爭、政策的影響。二○年代即獨立發行同人誌的西川滿、出身漢學世家的黃得時,都因為與日本帝國主義下的學院體制、知識領域產生連結,而獲得維持、轉化其文化資本的可能,帝國大學的介入也在歷史物語、民俗題材的運用上為台灣小說帶來轉變。本論文將小說作家、理論者視為「行動者」,冀能在民族本位的方向外,擘畫出四○年代的台灣文壇構造與文學的關係。
Modern Taiwan fiction made its official debut the 1920s. It entered a “period of dormancy” when the Chinese-language column on the newspapers was canceled by the Japanese colonial government in 1937. With the publications of Nishikawa Mitsuru’s Literary Taiwan (Bungei Taiwan) and Zhang Wen-huan’s Taiwan Literature (Taiwan bungaku) in the beginning of the 1940s, modern Taiwan fiction began to revitalize. This was contingent upon the influence of the movement of Japanese Imperial Rule Assistance (Taisei yokusan) had on colonial cultural policies, as well as on how Taiwanese intellectuals took advantage of such policies. This kind of historicization is well accepted in existing literary histories. This essay argues that such historicization over-emphasizes the active, invasive quality of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” (naichi jin) represented by Nishikawa Mitsuru, resulting in a skepticism that essentializes all literary activities of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” as related to politics and the “movement of imperialization” (kôminka). With a discussion of the introduction of such literary journal as “Taiwan University Literature” (Taidai bungali) and from an analytical angle of “literary field,” this essay explores a possible foundation of cultural capital shared by the two opposing campaigns of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” and “Taiwanese people.” This essay studies the human and academic networks of Shimada Kinji, a professor at the Imperial University, and Nishikawa Mitsuru and Huang De-shi, leaders in the literary field in the 1940s, to stress how academia has interfered with and contributed to the establishment of literary field, and even transcended military and politic influences. Nishikawa Mitsuru, who independently began his own literary enterprise as early as the 1920s, and Huang De-shi, who came from a prestige family of Sinology, have both utilized their connections to academia and knowledge productions under Japanese imperialism, thereby acquiring and transforming related cultural capital. Additionally, the intervention from the Imperial University has brought much creative incorporation of historical tales and folklores to the changing landscape of Taiwan fiction. Foregrounding writers and theorists as “agents,” this essay aims to move beyond a nationalist frame to highlight the complex relationship between the structure of Taiwan literary field and Taiwan literature in the 1940s.
Relation: 臺灣文學學報,19,99-132
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[臺灣文學學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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