Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/103602


Title: 論科學解釋 : 一個三民主義研究的基礎
Authors: 杜奉賢
Contributors: 胡訓正
杜奉賢
Date: 1985
Issue Date: 2016-11-09 15:58:37 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 論文提要
在三民主義研究的範疇中,最迫切需要的,當是建立作為後設基礎的方法論;而在方法論的爭辯中,「科學解釋」又是最富挑戰性的題目;因為它是研究過程與知識建立之間的橋樑,故而論證的鋪陳必須兼顧到本體論、知識論、方法論、經驗論與唯理論,美國的新實證論與歐洲的詮釋學等。從這些爭辯中,筆者層層撥開對社會科學與解釋的曲解,建立社會科學方法論的自我風貌。最後再從解釋的脈絡中尋找社會科學與三民主義的關連而建立三民主義研究的方法論基礎。全文分為六章,現將要點略述如后:
第壹章導論。說明本文的基本預設,就是把三民主義研究視同於社會科學研究;再設定全文的理論觀點,概念格局與分析架構。
第貳章經驗科學中的解擇型式及其問題。評析邏輯實證論者和實證社會科學家所倡導的含蓋定律解擇型式,包括 “D-N ”型式,“ I-S ”型式,以及修正與補充的” S-R ”型式,“ D-N-P ” 型式和“ CC ”解釋等;此乃邏輯的解釋。
第參章科學解釋在社會科學方法論中的爭議。論述實證論者的後設觀點,與反對引用自然科學中的解釋型式,而認為社會科學中應有其獨特詮釋理解法的人文研究者觀點。從雙方觀點中找出互補論題,即意義與因果的兼顧與研究過程的整合,並建立理解的解釋觀。
第肆章社會科學研究中解釋的疑難。探討在後設理論中,我們根本不能解釋而只能描述,在實際研究中,所謂解釋也只是描述的論辯,從論辯中建立描述的解釋,並且認為這種解釋型態正可調和前述邏輯與理解兩種對立的解釋觀點,而且在實際解釋的應用上有其可行性。
第伍章社會科學中的解釋方法。此乃針對社會科學家在實際的研究上如何進行解釋作探討。先對社會現象做若干假定,然後區分出四種解釋方法,即溯源、功能、行動、總體等。在解釋過程中要交互運用邏輯的,詮釋理解的與描述的解釋,但這些解釋都必須面對人類主體的動機、意圖、目的等特性,而建立動機的解釋。
第陸章結論:科學解釋與三民主義研究。由解釋的預設中導出社會科學理論的多元典範和走向規範性道德理論的需求;而三民主義亦是求實用的規範性理論,因而主張社會科學與三民主義的交互透視。
第壹章 導論1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 解釋與社會科學研究7
第三節 分析架構17
第貳章 經驗科學中的解釋型式及其問題24
第一節 含蓋定律解釋型式26
第二節 含蓋定律解釋型式的內在困難35
第三節 對含蓋定律解釋型式的修正與補充44
第參章 科學解釋在社會科學方法論中的爭論56
第一節 實證研究的主張58
第二節 人文研究的主張71
第三節 科學解釋在社會科學中的特性86
第肆章 社會科學研究中解釋的疑難99
第一節 解釋超越描述的觀點100
第二節 以描述作為解釋的觀點106
第三節 解釋與描述的關連114
第伍章 社會科學中的解釋方法124
第一節 社會現象與解釋方法125
第二節 解釋方法之類別131
第陸章 結論:科學解釋與三民主義研究149
第一節 社會科學解釋與規範性理論150
第二節 一個三民主義研究的基礎155
參考資料161
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Relation: 國立政治大學
三民主義研究所
碩士
73
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 學位論文

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