政大學術集成


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/104658


Title: 論匈牙利的經濟改革運動
Authors: 何旭初
Contributors: 趙春山
何旭初
Date: 1985
Issue Date: 2016-12-07 15:17:36 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 論文提要
匈牙利的經濟改革運動,自一九六八年開始實施「新經濟機能」迄今,已經逐漸成為共黨世界裏的明星。本論文所要探討的重點,即是希望從這個改革運動的背景、實施經過,以及它對匈牙利政治、經濟、社會的影響,來探究這個改革運動的本質。在資料的安排上,則盡可能依著事件發生的先後排列,期能較清晰地說明有關改革的各項因果關係。
本論文全文約八萬字,分為六章,各章研究內容概述如下:
第一章,導論,說明東歐國家經濟改革的原因、採行的模式,以及匈牙利獨特的抉擇,並且提出全文的分析架構。
第二章,以匈牙利自戰後到一九五九年間的經濟狀況,說明指令式計畫經濟所帶來的困擾,成為醞釀改革的根本壓力來源。
第三章,討論整個改革的醞釀過程、實施內容、成功的因素、產生缺陷的原因,以及路線的修正過程和最新動向,是全文分量最重的一章。
第四章,討論經濟改革和政治放寬措施的交互影響,以及「新經濟機能」所帶來的各項衝擊。
第五章,分析蘇聯的態度和影響;並且說明,實施經濟改革後,會影響到匈牙利對東歐經互會的觀感。
第六章,結論,認為「新經濟機能」是一種實事求是態度下的產物,不必視之為一個「模式」;但它能使共黨繼續獨占政治權力,也能解決部分經濟上的難題,所以,它很可能成為共黨世界裏被模仿的對象。
序言 壹
圖表目次 伍
第一章 導論1
第一節 東歐走上經濟改革之路1
第二節 匈牙利的獨特抉擇7
第三節 政經改革的關聯11
第二章 經濟改革的根本動力21
第一節 一九四五到五三年的概況21
第二節 納基的新路線及其失敗25
第三節 一九五五到五九年的概況29
第四節 經濟上產生的困擾33
第三章 「新經濟機能」的實施45
第一節 醞釀過程45
第二節 初期的主要內容50
第三節 順利實施的因素58
第四節 限制和不足之處62
第五節 路線的調整68
第六節 「新經濟機能」的新動向74
第四章 「新經濟機能」的其他面相91
第一節 黨的路線和影響91
第二節 政治放寬措施及其影響97
第三節 「新經濟機能」帶來的影響103
第五章 東歐集團和「新經濟機能」115
第一節 蘇聯的態度115
第二節 「新經濟機能」與經互會的關係119
第六章 結論127
參考書目135
圖表目次

1 經濟改革做為依變項13
2 經濟改革做為獨變項14
3 1961 - 78對盧布貿易區貿易平衡狀況72
4 1961 - 78對美元貿易區貿易平衡狀況72

1 1949年到1959年國民所得成長指數表32
2 1950年到1959年投資分配情形33
3 1972年蘇聯與東歐國家高層分子互訪次數比較表118
Reference: 壹、中文
(一)、書籍:
1.中國社會科學院《世界經濟》編輯部編,匈牙利的經濟改革,北京:中國展望出版社,1983年7月第一版。
2.經濟部國際貿易局、中華民國對外貿易發展協會譯編,東歐各國經貿簡介之二:匈牙利,台北:編者,民國六十九年三月。
(二)、期刊上之論文:
1.「匈牙利式資本主義路線」,讀者文摘38卷5期,1984年1月:頁81-5。
2.「各國概況:匈牙利」,世界知識手冊編輯委員會編,1957世界知識手冊,頁426-36,北京:世界知識出版社,1957年3月。
3.「匈牙利經濟體制考察報告」,經濟研究(中共),1984年第2期:頁10-21。
4.金良平著,「匈牙利的經濟體制改革」,世界知識(中共),1983年第12期:頁2-3。
5.浩青著,「在困難中前進的匈牙利經濟」,世界知識,1983年第6期:頁18-9。
6.陳梓著,「談談匈牙利的經濟情況」,世界知識,1979年第16期:頁7-9。
7.雷熱•湼爾什著,「匈牙利經濟體制改革的經驗」,經濟研究,1984年第2期:頁22-8。
(三)、報紙:
1.蔡吉源著,「市場社會制度與中共經濟改革(上)、(中)、(下)」,中央日報(台北),民國七十四年四月二十三日到二十五日。
2.「匈牙利走上民主道路?」,明報(香港),1983年7月15日。
貳、英文
(一) Books:
1 . Balassa, Bela A. The Hungarian Experience in Economic Planning: A Theoretical and Empirical Study. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959.
2. Brzezinski, Zbigniew K. The Soviet Block: Unity and Conflict. Revised Edition. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1961.
3. Hare P. G., H. K. Radice and N. Swain. eds. Hungary: A Decade of Economic Reform. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981.
4. Kecskemeti Paul. The Unexpected Revolution: Social Forces in the Hungarian Uprising. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1961.
5. Kovrig, Bennett. The Hungarian People's Republic. Baltimore, Md. : Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.
6. Nagy, Imre. Imre Nagy on Communism : In Defense of the New Course. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1957.
7. Smith, Alan H. The Planned Economies of Eastern Europe. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983.
8. Staar, Richard F. Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe. 4th Edition. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1982.
9. Tampke, Jürgen. The People's Republic of Eastern Europe. London: Croom Helm, 1983.
10. Toma, Peter A., and Ivan Volgyes . Politics in Hungary. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co., 1977.
11. Váli, Ference A. Rift and Revolt in Hungary. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1961.
12. Wilczynski, J. The Economics of Socialism Principles Governing the Operation of the Centrally Planned Economies under the New System. 4th Enlarged Edition. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982.
(二)、Articles:
1. "Agriculture." In Hungary, pp. 229-58. Edited by Ernst C. Helmerich. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1956.
2. Antal László. "Carrying on with the Economic Reform." The New Hungarian Quarterly 24 (Atumn 1983): 69-80.
3. Balassa, Bela. "The Economic Reform in Hungary: Ten Years After." European Economic Review 11 (Oct. 1978): 245-68.
4. Baracs, J. "Planning, Production, Prices." Survey 40 (Jan. 1962): 159-65.
5. Bigler, Robert M. "The Role of Bureaucracies and Experts in the Planning and Implementation of Hungary's New Economic Mechanism." East European Quarterly 18 (Mar. 1984): 93-112.
6. Csaba, László. "The New Features of the Hungarian Economic Mechanism in the Mid-eighties."The New Hungarian Quarterly 24 ( Summer 1983 ): 44-63.
7. Csikós-Nagy, Béla. "Development Problems of the Hungarian Economy." The New Hungarian Quarterly 23 (Winter 1982): 74-87.
8. ________. "Liquidity Problems and Economic Consolidation. " The New Hungarian Quarterly 25 (Summer 1984): 42-54.
9. Cviic Chris. "Hungary: The Quiet Revolution. The Economist Sep. 20, 1980. pp. 51-54, 67-71.
10. Cviic, K. F. "Hungary's Reforming Road." The World Today 37 (Oct. 1981 ): 380-87.
11. Féhér, Ferenc. "Kadarism as Applied Khrushchevism." In Khrushchev and the Communist World, pp. 210-29. Edited by R. F. Miller and F. Féhér. London:
Croom Helm, 1984.
12. Gamarnikow, Michael, "Political Patterns and Economic Reforms, " Problems of Communism 18 (Mar. -Apr 1969):11-23.
13. Gati Charles. "Hungary: The Politics of Reform." Current History 60 (May 1971. ): 290-94, 308.
14. ________."The Kádár Mystique." Problems of Communism 23 (May- Jun. 1974 ) : 23-35
15. Granick, David "The Hungarian Economic Reform." In Comparative Economic Systems: Models and Cases, pp. 218-32. Edited by Morris Bornstein. 3rd Edition. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin, 1974.
16. Grossman, Gregory. " Economic Reforms : A Balance Sheet." Problems of Communism 15 (Nov. -Dec. 1966): 43-55.
17. Held, Joseph. "Hungary: Iron out of Wood. " Problems of Communism 15 (Nov.-Dec. 1966): 37-43.
18. Helmerich, Ernst C. "Kadar's Hungary." Current History 48 (Mar. 1965): 142-8.
19. Hewett , Edward A. "The Hungarian Economy: Lessons of the 1970's and Prospects for the 1980's." In East European Economic Assessment Part 1 - Country Studies, 1980, pp. 483-524. U. S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. Washington D. C. :U. S. G. P. O., 1981.
20. Höhmann , Hans-Hermann . " Economic Reform in the 1970s-Policy with no Alternative." In The East European Economies in the 1970s, pp. 1-16. Edited by Alec Nove , Hans-Hermann Höhmann , and Gertraud Seidenstecher . London: Butterworths , 1982.
21. Kadarkay, Arpad A. "Hungary: An Experiment in Communism." The Western Political Quarterly 16 ( Jan. 1973): 280-301.
22. Kemenes , Egon. "The Hungarian Economy: 1945-1969. "In Modern Hungary: Readings from the New Hungarian Quarterly, pp. 128-44. Edited by Denis Sinor. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.
23. Kende Peter. "The State of the Economy. " Survey 40 (Jan. 1962): 149-58.
24. Korbonski , Andrzej. " Political Aspects of Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe. In Economic Development in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Vol. 1, pp. 8-41. Edited by Zbigniew M. Fallenbuchl. New York: Praeger, 1975.
25. Lange ,Oskar . "On the Economic Theory of Socialism." In On the Economic Theory of Socialism, pp. 57-129. Edited by Benjamin E. Lippincott. New Delhi: Tata McGraw- Hill , 1976.
26. Lavigne, Marie. "Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe: Ten Years After." In Economic Development in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Vol 1 pp. 42-64. Edited by Zbigniew M. Fallenbuchl. New York: Praeger, 1975.
27. Lendvai Paul. "Hungary: Change vs. Immobilism." Problems of Communism 16 (Mar.-Apr. 1967) : 11-17.
28. Mark , Gregory A. " Hungarian Consumers and the New Economic Mechanism." East European Quarterly 16 (Mar. 1982): 87-104.
29. Nagy, Tamas. "The Hungarian Economic Reform, Past and Future." The American Economic Review 61 (May 1971): 430-9.
30. Portes, Richard D. " Economic Reforms in Hungary." The American Economic Review 55 (May 1970): 307-13.
31. Rocz, Barnabas A. "Hungary's New Economic Mechanism." The Michigan Academician 1 (winter 1969): 175-81.
32. Révész, Gábor. "Hungary." In The New Economic Systems of Eastern Europe, pp. 155-69. Edited by Hans-Hermann Höhmann , Michael Kaser , and Karl C. Thalheim. London: C. Hurst & Co., 1975.
33. Shaffer, Harry G. "Progress in Hungary." Problems of Communism 19 (Jan.-Feb. 1970): 48-60.
34. Spulber, Nicolas. "National Income and Its Distribution." In Hungary, pp. 214-28. Edited by Ernst C. Helmerich. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1956.
35. Tardos Márton. "Relationships between the International Division of Labour and Hungarian Economic Policy." In Essays on Economic Policy and Planning in Hungary, pp. 224-79. Edited by Istvan Friss. Translated by Károly Ravasz. Translation Revised by Keith Crane. Hungary: Carvina Kiadó, 1978.
36. Tökés, Rudolf L."Hungarian Reform Imperatives. " Problems of Communism 33 (Sep.-Oct. 1984) : 1-23.
37. Vajna, Thomas . " Problems and Trends in the Development of the Hungarian New Economic Mechanism : A Balance Sheet of the 1970s." In The East European Economies in the 1970s, pp. 180-214. Edited by Alec Nove , Hans-Hermann Höhmann , and Getraud Seidenstecher. London: Butterworths, 1982.
38. Volgyes, Ivan. "Hungary in the Seventies: The Era of Reform." Current History 64 (May 1973): 216-9, 232.
39. ________." Limited Liberalization in Hungary." Current History 70 (Mar. 1976): 107-10.
40. ________. "Hungary: The Crown and the Crowd." Current History 74 (Apr. 1978): 176-9, 181, 186
41. ________. "The Kadar Years in Hungary. " Current History 80 (Apr. 1981): 159-63, 183-4.
42. ________. "Hungary: Socialism with a Nervous Tic." Current History 81 (Nov. 1982): 362-5.
(三)、Newspaper:
1. Lendvai , Paul . "Grumbles in Hungary. " The Christian Science Monitor. Mar. 22, 1985.
2. International Herald Tribune. Mar. 27, 1985.
Relation: 國立政治大學
東亞研究所
碩士
73
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of East Asia Studies ] Theses

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