|Abstract: ||等值是翻譯理論的核心概念。翻譯的根本目的，便是要創造出與原文等值的譯文；翻譯的正誤優劣，也無不以等值為評判的標準。等值理論經歷了一個由絕對到相對、由靜止到動態、由單一籠統到分層次分類型 的漸進演變過程。俄羅斯語言學家、譯學家，如Гак В. Г., Комиссаров В. Н., Швейцер А. Д. 等，對等值理論的深化都作出了有價值的貢獻。本文著重評析Швейцер А. Д.的等值理念。Швейцер以語言符號學的三分法為框架，區分出“語形等值”、“語義等值”、“語用等值”三個類型。其中第二類“語義等值”又劃分為“語義成分等值”和“所指等值”兩個細類。這一“分類圖”比較準確地反映了語篇及語句的功能多樣性，有助於譯者在各種不同的場合對症下藥地進行語際替代和語際轉換。筆者對Швейцер的理論概念在充分肯定的同時也指出了其中有待修正、完善的地方；在此基礎上，又對等值理論研究如何進一步深化發表了自己的見解。|
Equivalence is the core concept of the theory of translation. It is in producing texts equivalent to originals that the ultimate goal of translation consists; and it is equivalence that serves as the criterion on which translation is estimated. The theory of equivalence has undergone evolution from absoluteness up to relativity, from static character up to dynamism, from generality up to being devided on different types. A valuable contribution to detailed elaboration of concept of equivalence has been brought by such Russian linguists and translation researchers, as V. Gak, V. Comissarov, A. Schweitzer etc. In this article the main attention is paid to elucidation and critical analysis of concept of equevalence offerd by A. Schweitzer. Using the device of linguistic semiology, Schweitze distinguishes three types of equivalence: “syntactic equivalence “, “semantic equivalence “ and “pragmatical equivalence “. The second of above mentioned types is in turn subdivided into two species: “componential equivalence “ and “referential equivalence “. The given pattern quite accurately reflects the functional variety of texts and utterances a translator usually meets and enables him to make replacements and transformations during translation adequately. In a sufficient measure positively estimating Schweitzer's theoretical positions, the author of this article at the same time indicates in them those places, which require updating and improving, and in this connection he makes some statements about how to promote the further deepening of corresponding researches.