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Title: 越界之轉化—中國戲曲的英譯與演出個案探討
Other Titles: Boundary Crossing and Transformation— Case Studies of Chinese xiqu’s overseas English Translation and Performance
Authors: 熊賢關
Hsiung, Ann-Marie
Date: 2013-09
Issue Date: 2016-12-29 15:35:34 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 具中華文化特徵、唱作念打的戲曲,在「全球化」浪潮的衝擊下,已明顯地不受境內年輕人歡迎。然而,它卻越界旅行到國外,被譯成英文,搬上英文舞台,甚至由洋人擔綱演出,受到相當的好評。在此種「越界與轉化」中,戲曲該作何種程度之保留、異化或歸化,以吸引當地觀眾,贏得青睞,在在考驗文化翻譯者的學養與見識。 本文首先簡述較知名的中國戲曲境外英文演出,從早期熊式一 (1934-193) 推出並上演於倫敦、紐約的《王寶川》,至1970年楊世彭在美國編導的《烏龍院》,到1980年代起魏麗莎 (Elizabeth Wichmann) 於夏威夷大學戲劇系執導並公演的數齣京劇。繼而聚焦於2008年由沈廣仁在新加坡推出的《西廂記》。此文以目的論深入探討沈廣仁的《西廂記》舞台本之英文翻譯與演出實踐,著重審視其越界之創新與轉化暨譯者之劫持與改寫,進而將其唱詞英譯之特色與魏麗莎的作一比較。最後探討旅行於境外的中國戲曲的譯者∕導演操縱與觀眾共謀的得失成敗。
The popularity of xiqu or traditional Chinese theatre—embodying characteristics of Chinese culture as singing, reciting, acting and acrobatic fighting—has dropped greatly within Chinese regions under the impact of globalization. However, xiqu has travelled overseas and crossed boundaries to be put into English stages, which were more than often favorably received. In such boundary crossing and inevitable transformation, the translator’s cultural cognition and ability is highly challenged in view of foreignizing or domesticating in order to attract local audience. This study would first briefly review the overseas English performance of Chinese xiqu beginning with Shi-I Hsiung’s overwhelmingly popular Lady Precious Stream (1934-1935), to Yang Shi-peng’s Black Dragon Residence in the US in the 1970s, and Elizabeth Wichmann’s numerous performances since 1980. It then focuses on Grant Shen’s The West Wing performed in 2008 Singapore from the perspective of skopos theory. It highlights the translator’s various strategies such as hijacking and rewriting in order to reach the target audience, and further compares Shen’s libretto translation with Wichmann’s. Finally, it explores the loss and gain of translator/director’s manipulation of Chinese xiqu travelling across cultural boundaries.
Relation: 廣譯:語言、文學與文化翻譯, 9, 125-147
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[廣譯] 期刊論文

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