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Title: 中國農民工和城市勞工之薪資差異再探-追蹤資料分析
Re-examination of the wage differences between migrant workers and urban workers in China
Authors: 顧訓豪
Ku, Hsun-Hao
Contributors: 莊奕琦
Chuang, Yih-Chyi
Ku, Hsun-Hao
Keywords: 農民工
Hausman-Taylor 模型
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-03-01 17:27:30 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 從2000年起中國農民工即被經濟學家廣泛討論,但由於資料取得不易,研究方法和估計偏誤的修正皆存在限制。本文利用2008年和2009年RUMiC追蹤資料,得以控制除了樣本選擇性偏誤外的樣本的內生性和異質性問題,重新去探討中國男性農民工和男性城市居民的的薪資差異。研究結果發現,在就業選擇方面,家庭成員的收入對於是否成為受薪勞工有很大的影響力,對於農民工而言,移動成本越高越需要成為穩定的受薪勞工;在薪資估計方面,城市居民利用追蹤資料分析的工作經回報率比起OLS估計低上許多,農民工則是有較OLS估計高的工作經驗回報率,在控制估計偏誤後,城市居民的教育回報率約為10%,是農民工的4.9%的兩倍以上,與過往文獻出現相悖個結果,說明在沒有控制內生和異質性問題下,城市居民的教育回報率被嚴重的低估,可能造成後續估計上出現不同的結果,本文利用追蹤資料薪資估計結果在進行Oaxaca薪資差異分解,發現其差異約70%-80%歸咎於農民工和城市居民的稟賦差異,只有約20%-30%來自於不可解釋部分,被視作歧視性薪資差異,而其中教育年數不再是足以弭平歧視的要素之一,工作經驗變成消除農民工在職場受到的歧視唯一強大的要素。
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