Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Youth unemployment in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea
|Issue Date:||2017-03-01 17:37:43 (UTC+8)|
Youth unemployment in the context of the school-to-work transition is an important issue to understand given its implications for individual development, society, the economy, and the education system. While this topic has received strong attention in the North America and Europe, less research on the topic in East Asia exists. Given the sharp fall in fertility rates, rising youth unemployment, and the adverse social consequences of incomplete school-to-work transitions in East Asia, there is a need for greater analysis on the topic. This thesis sets out to investigate the context in which youth unemployment and the school-to-work transition emerged as a publicly concerned issue in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. Moreover, this thesis seeks to analyze the discourses that have been put forth in public discussions and deliberations and consequently how policymakers have responded.
A qualitative method is used to provide a holistic understanding of the issue and generate more suitable solutions. In addition to analyzing the discourse, the thesis examines the results of the East Asia Social Survey (EASS), particularly the relevance of social capital to youth unemployment. Based on the findings in the discourse and the EASS data, it is found that the challenges to the school-to-work transition in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea are the intense exam culture, youth’s lack of social capital, a deficit of practical experience opportunities, and the strong emphasis on rote learning in the education systems. It is thus recommended that policymakers consider alternative measurements to exam results in determining the academic future of young people as well as increasing their opportunities to gain social capital and work experience.
|Reference:||1. Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40. |
2. Affichard, J. (1981). Quels emplois après l'école: La valeur des titres scolaires depuis 1973. Économie Et Statistique, 134(1), 7-26.
3. Aikens, C. M., & Higuchi, T. (1982). Prehistory of japan Academic Pr.
4. Alston, J. P. (1989). Wa, guanxi, and inhwa: Managerial principles in japan, china, and korea. Business Horizons, 32(2), 26-31.
5. Asai, J., & Morimoto, W. (2005). The way to prevent your child from becoming NEET. Takarajima-Sha,
6. Billett, P. (2011). Youth social capital: Getting on and getting ahead in life.
7. Blanchflower, D. G., & Freeman, R. B. (2007). Youth employment and joblessness in advanced countries University of Chicago Press.
8. Bourdiue, P. (1985). The forms of capital. in handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. NY: Greenwood, Richardson Publisher,
9. Brewer, L. (2013).
Enhancing youth employability: What? why? and how? guide to core work skills. Geneva: ILO.
10. Brinton, M. C. (2001). Social capital in the japanese youth labor market: Labor market policy, schools, and norms. Policy Sciences, 33(3-4), 289-306.
11. Brinton, M. C. (2011). Lost in transition: Youth, work, and instability in postindustrial japan Cambridge University Press.
12. Brinton, M. C. (2014). Japan's emerging youth policy: Getting young adults back to work by tuukka toivonen (review). The Journal of Japanese Studies, 40(2), 532-536.
13. Burt, R. S. (1995). Structural holes Harvard University Press.
14. Bush, R. C. (2003). The united states and taiwan. International Conference on the United Nations and Taiwan. RITA L. D’ECCLESIA and,
15. Butler, Y. G. (2005). Comparative perspectives towards communicative activities among elementary school teachers in south korea, japan and taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 9(4), 423-446.
16. Chapman, D., & Sarvi, J. (2016). Widely recognized problems, controversial solutions: Issues and strategies for higher education development in east and southeast asia. In H. K. Mok (Ed.), Managing international connectivity, diversity of learning and changing labour markets: East Asian perspectives (pp. 25-46). Singapore: Springer Singapore.
17. Chen, C. (2009). The distribution and return of social capital in Taiwan. Contexts of Social Capital: Social Networks in Markets, Communities, and Families, 193-227.
18. Chen, H., & Fan, H. (2014). Education in taiwan: The vision and goals of the 12-year curriculum.
19. Chen, Y. (2011). Once a NEET always a NEET? experiences of employment and unemployment among youth in a job training programme in taiwan. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(1), 33-42.
20. Cheong, W. D. (2015, 27 October 2015). Address by president park geun-hye at the national assembly on the government proposal for FY 2016 budget plan. Korea.Net
21. Cho, D., Kim, H., Kim, J. H., & Hyun, Y. (2014). The effect of social capital on college students’ initial job selection in South Korea. Journal of Business & Management, 3(2), 17.
22. Chuang, H. (1999). Estimating the determinants of the unemployment duration for college graduates in taiwan. Applied Economics Letters, 6(10), 677-681.
23. Côté, J. E., Mizokami, S., Roberts, S. E., & Nakama, R. (2016). An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the identity capital model: American and Japanese students compared. Journal of Adolescence, 46, 76-85.
24. Côté, J. E., Mizokami, S., Roberts, S. E., Nakama, R., Meca, A., & Schwartz, S. J. (2015). The role of identity horizons in education-to-work transitions: A cross-cultural validation study in japan and the united states. Identity, 15(4), 263-286.
25. Crocetti, E., Tagliabue, S., Sugimura, K., Nelson, L. J., Takahashi, A., Niwa, T., . . . Jinno, M. (2015). Perceptions of emerging adulthood A study with Italian and Japanese university students and young workers. Emerging Adulthood.
26. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The sage handbook of qualitative research Sage.
27. Dunbabin, J. P. D. (2014). The cold war: The great powers and their allies Routledge.
28. Futagami, N. (2005). The hope of nito: The message from the field. Tokyo: Tokyo Keizai Inc.
29. Galabuzi, G., & Teelucksingh, C. (2010). Social cohesion, social exclusion, social capital Region of Peel, Human Services.
30. Genda, Y. (2003). Who really lost jobs in japan? youth employment in an aging japanese society. Labor markets and firm benefit policies in japan and the united states (pp. 103-134) University of Chicago Press.
31. Genda, Y., & Kurosawa, M. (2001). Transition from school to work in japan. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 15(4), 465-488.
32. Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1(1), 201-233.
33. Gordon, Peter E. "What is Intellectual History? A frankly partisan introduction to a frequently misunderstood field" (2009).
34. Hammer, M. F., Karafet, T. M., Park, H., Omoto, K., Harihara, S., Stoneking, M., & Horai, S. (2006). Dual origins of the japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes. Journal of Human Genetics, 51(1), 47-58.
35. Herr, E. L. (1999). Theoretical perspectives on the School‐to‐Work transition: Reactions and recommendations. The Career Development Quarterly, 47(4), 359-364.
36. Hill, C., Soares, P., Mormina, M., Macaulay, V., Blumbach, P., Vizuete-Forster, M., . . . Oppenheimer, S. (2007). A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast asia. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(1), 29-43.
37. Hoffman, M., & Jamal, A. (2012). The youth and the Arab spring: Cohort differences and similarities. Middle East Law and Governance, 4(1), 168-188.
38. Honda, Y. (2004). The formation and transformation of the Japanese system of transition from school to work. Social Science Japan Journal, 7(1), 103-115.
39. Hsung, R., Lin, N., & Breiger, R. L. (2010). Contexts of social capital: Social networks in markets, communities and families Routledge.
40. ILO. (2007). The ILO at a glance. Geneva: ILO.
41. ILO. (2011). Youth unemployment in the arab world is a major cause for rebellion. Geneva:
42. ILO. (2012). Global employment trends for youth 2012.
43. Jang, S., & Kim, N. (2004). Transition from high school to higher education and work in korea, from the competency-based education perspective. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(6), 691-703.
44. Jansen, M. B. (1988). The cambridge history of japan Cambridge University Press.
45. Jarrett, R. L., Sullivan, P. J., & Watkins, N. D. (2005). Developing social capital through participation in organized youth programs: Qualitative insights from three programs. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(1), 41-55.
46. Jeong, I. (2007). The status of youth unemployment in korea and policy tasks. Transition Support Policy for Young People with Low Educational Background, 61.
47. Ji, Y. G., Hwangbo, H., Yi, J. S., Rau, P. P., Fang, X., & Ling, C. (2010). The influence of cultural differences on the use of social network services and the formation of social capital. Intl.Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 26(11-12), 1100-1121.
48. Jung, T., Misko, J., Lee, K., Dawe, S., Hong, S. Y., & Lee, K. (2004). Effective measures for school-to-work transition in the vocational education system: Lessons from australia and korea. National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER),
49. Kamimura, Y., & Soma, N. (2013). Active labour market policies in japan: A shift away from the company-centred model? Journal of Asian Public Policy, 6(1), 42-59.
50. Kim, A. G., Ryoo, H. G., Han, S. G., Lee, Y. D., & Jang, S. M. (2010). A study on school- to-work for university graduates in korea. Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training.
51. Kim, S. (2016, 20 January 2016). Government programs fail to boost youth employment. The Hankyoreh.
52. Kobayashi, J., Kagawa, M., & Sato, Y. (2015). How to get a longer job? roles of human and social capital in the japanese labor market. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 24(1), 20-29.
53. Koen, J., Klehe, U., & Van Vianen, A. E. (2012). Training career adaptability to facilitate a successful school-to-work transition. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(3), 395-408.
54. Korea Employment Information Service. (2012). Development and evaluation of the public employment service in South Korea. Ministry of Employment and Labour,
55. Korea Information Society Development Institute. (2014). 2015 ICT industry outlook of korea.
56. Kosugi, R. (2004). The transition from school to work in japan: Understanding the increase in freeter and jobless youth. Labour, 4, 3.2.
57. Lamley, H. J. (1999). Taiwan under japanese rule, 1895–1945. Taiwan: A New History, 201.
58. Leavy, P. (2011). Oral history: Understanding qualitative research Oxford University Press.
59. Li, J. (2002). Some discoveries of fossils and relics of prehistoric civilizations from around the world. Pureinsight.
60. Lin, N. (1990). Social resources and social mobility: A structural theory of status attainment. Social Mobility and Social Structure, 247-271.
61. Lin, N. (2000). Inequality in social capital. Contemporary Sociology, 29(6), 785-795.
62. Luijkx, R., & Wolbers, M. H. (2009). The effects of non-employment in early work-life on subsequent employment chances of individuals in the Netherlands. European Sociological Review, , jcp002.
63. Martinez-Fernandez, C., & Choi, K. (2013). Skills development pathways in Asia Springer.
64. McMurphy, S. M., Weaver, R. D., Hrncic-Lipovic, K., & Habibov, N.Cultivating social capital through summer employment programs: Perspectives from youth participants.
65. Narayan-Parker, D., & World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, Poverty Division. (1999). Bonds and bridges: Social capital and poverty World Bank.
66. Nitta, Y. (2013). Analysis for Japanese youth employment. Philadelphia Social Innovations Journal,
67. Okano, K. (1993). School to work transition in japan: An ethnographic study Multilingual matters.
68. Padgett, M. Y., & Morris, K. A. (2005). Keeping it" all in the family:" does nepotism in the hiring process really benefit the beneficiary? Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11(2), 34-45.
69. Pilz, M., Schmidt-Altmann, K., & Eswein, M. (2015). Problematic transitions from school to employment: Freeters and NEETs in japan and germany. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 45(1), 70-93.
70. Portes, A. (2000). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. LESSER, Eric L.Knowledge and Social Capital.Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 43-67.
71. Putnam, R. (2001). Social capital: Measurement and consequences. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), 41-51.
72. Reynolds, T. (2007). Friendship networks, social capital and ethnic identity: Researching the perspectives of caribbean young people in britain. Journal of Youth Studies, 10(4), 383-398.
73. Roberts, S. (2011). Beyond ‘NEET’and ‘tidy’pathways: Considering the ‘missing middle’of youth transition studies. Journal of Youth Studies, 14(1), 21-39.
74. Rogers, M., & Creed, P. (2000). School-to-work transition: From theory to practice. Australian Journal of Career Development, 9(3), 20-26.
75. Rosenbaum, J. E., & Kariya, T. (1989). From high school to work: Market and institutional mechanisms in japan. American Journal of Sociology, 1334-1365.
76. Rosenbaum, J. E., Kariya, T., Settersten, R., & Maier, T. (1990). Market and network theories of the transition from high school to work: Their application to industrialized societies. Annual Review of Sociology, 263-299.
77. Ryan, P. (2001). The school-to-work transition: A cross-national perspective. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(1), 34-92.
78. Sansom, G. B. (1978). Japan: A short cultural history Stanford University Press.
79. Sawada, J. A. (1993). Confucian values and popular zen: Sekimon shingaku in eighteenth century japan University of Hawaii Press.
80. So, K., & Kang, J. (2014). Curriculum reform in korea: Issues and challenges for twenty-first century learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 23(4), 795-803.
81. Sorensen, C. W. (1994). Success and education in South Korea. Comparative Education Review, , 10-35.
82. Spicker, P. (2011). British social policy, 1601-1948. An Introduction to Social Policy,
83. Sullivan, P. J., & Larson, R. W. (2010). Connecting youth to high-resource adults: Lessons from effective youth programs. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25(1), 99-123.
84. Sung, S. (2003). Women reconciling paid and unpaid work in a confucian welfare state: The case of south korea. Social Policy & Administration, 37(4), 342-360.
85. Tan, C. (2012). “Our shared values” in singapore: A confucian perspective. Educational Theory, 62(4), 449-463.
86. Toivonen, T. (2011). ‘Don't let your child become a NEET!’ the strategic foundations of a japanese youth scare. Japan Forum, 23(3), 407-429.
87. Totman, C. (1980). From sakoku to kaikoku. the transformation of foreign-policy attitudes, 1853-1868. Monumenta Nipponica, 1-19.
88. Totman, C. (2014). A history of Japan, John Wiley & Sons.
89. Tsai, S. (1998). The transition from school to work in Taiwan. See Shavit & Mueller, 1998, 443-470.
90. Werquin, P. (1999). Youth labour market entry in France OECD.
91. Woodman, D. (2012). Lost in transition: Youth, work, and instability in postindustrial Japan. Youth Studies Australia, 31(1), 7-8.
92. Yamamoto, I., & Nohara, Y. (2015). Active labor market policy and youth employment in japan, policy evaluation of the job café related projects. Panel Data Research Center at Keio University,
93. Yang, H. E. (2000). The role of networks in the transition from school to work in taiwan
94. Yoshimoto, K. (2002). Youth employment and labour market policies in japan. Prepared for ILO/Japan Tripartite Regional Meeting on Youth Employment in Asia and the Pacific.
95. Zhang, Y. B., & Hummert, M. L. (2002). Harmonies and tensions in chinese intergenerational communication: Younger and older adults’ accounts. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11(2), 203-230.
96. Zhou, M., & Kim, S. (2006). Community forces, social capital, and educational achievement: The case of supplementary education in the Chinese and Korean immigrant communities. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 1-29.
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.