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Title: 歐洲聯盟推動建構共同文化政策的發展與挑戰:兼論歐美自由貿易中「文化例外」之因素
Authors: 張台麟
Contributors: 歐語系
Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;文化多樣性;共同文化政策;文化例外;臺灣
European Union;Cutural diversity;Common cultural policy;Cultural exception;Taiwan
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2017-05-18 09:45:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 如眾所周知,歐洲聯盟成立初期在推動政經統合的過程當中,文化事務或政策的範圍並非是考量的重點。雖然,所有的創始會員國在1954年之時皆有參與「歐洲理事會」這個泛歐國際組織並簽署「歐洲文化公約」;1957年「歐洲共同體」條約第151條中也提出了文化
合作的內容,但限於各國間認知之差異與時空背景,這個面向一直受到輕忽,直到1972年開始才有所轉變。1972年起,歐洲議會正式成立「文化與青年事務委員會」,而部長理事會下也開始設有「文化事務部長會議」以負責推動文化事務的合作。1992年的「歐洲聯盟條約」中才開始將文化事務正式納入合作的範圍並設定了若干目標。2009年的「里斯本條約」可說才真正的將推動共同文化政策的目標予以法制化及具體化,條約中除了確認文化在歐洲統合的重要基石之外,同時更提出了建構共同文化政策的實踐策略。事實上,歐盟近年來已經由若干「歐洲文化遺產日」、「歐洲文化首都」以及「歐洲文創計畫」等計畫,積極推動歐盟的文化合作以建構歐洲文化政策。此外,歐洲議會也於2013年11月19日表決通過了一個7年期的「創意歐洲2014-2020計畫」的預算,顯示出歐盟建構共同文化政策的決心。不過,由於歐盟各會員國之間的歷史文化基礎與特色仍有相當大的差異,同時歐洲人民對歐洲文化的認同也有相當多元的思維與理想,因而歐盟在推動建構共同文化政策上仍有許多困難與挑戰。再者,隨著全球貿易自由化的潮流與衝擊,就在歐盟與美國雙方擬於2013年7月1日展開簽署「跨大西洋貿易與投資夥伴關係」協定談判之前夕,在法國的主導且以「文化例外」名義之下,歐盟理事會(Council of the European Union)於6月14日宣佈有關文化視聽產業將不納入談判及協議的內容,如此一來似凸顯出文化保護政策與自由貿易兩者間的矛盾,其中所反應出的問題與影響也值得探討。在此背景之下,本研究的研究重點包括,第一是歐盟推動文化合作與建構文化政策的歷史沿革與發展;第二是歐盟在推動建構共同文化政策上所制定的法理依據與規範;第三是歐盟在推動與執行各項策略與計畫的成效評估與面臨之挑戰;第四是歐美自由貿易協定談判中有關「文化例外」的因素與可能產生之影響。最後,本研究期望經由對歐盟建構共同文化政策的發展與策略之了解以及對「文化例外」議題之掌握進而對我國未來規劃並推動文化政策上提供具體且具前瞻性的研析與建議。
At the beginning of the European integration process in the 1950, the field of culture was not a top priority. With the deepening and broadening of the European Union, the EU has payed more and more attention to the field of cultural cooperations. In 2009, The Treaty of Lisbon has emphasized
the importance of culture policy in order to promote the economic growth and competitiveness of the European Union. In fact, The European Union has already contributed a lot of efforts in promoting cultural cooperations and projets, such as European Capitals of Culture, European Days of Culture and Culture 2000. On the Novembre of 2013, the
European parliament has adopted the “ Europe Creative
2014-2020“ programme with a budget of 1,5 billion. This shows that the EU tries to enhance the cultural cooperations among the members states in order to establish a common cultural policy in the future. However, the fact that the cooperation in terms of cultural policy is always a privileged domain of each member state, and that each government tried to keep the national identity based on the
principle of cultural diversity, and that the “Cutural exception“ on the TTIP (Tansatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) causes the problems into the European Union‘s institutions, so the EU‘s common cultural policy will have a long way to go. For Taiwan, with the democratization and liberalization of the political regime during the past 30 years, the Government has paid more and more attention to the issue dealing with the culture. The creation of Minitry of Culture in 2013 represented a new step. However, with the liberalization of commerce and the globalization of cultural industries , Taiwan’s cultural policy is also at the crossroad. The purpose of this research project is, firstly, to explore and discuss the history of the EU‘s cultural cooperation and its structure and strategic basis,
then to analyze the EU‘s actions and results on the push for the common policy in terms of the culture, thirdly to observe the impact of the “cultural exception” on the TTIP’s negociation, finally to make a comparison to the current situation of Taiwan and try to give a few concrete
and insightful advices on the future of the creative industries and cultural policy.
Relation: MOST 103-2410-H-004-063
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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