Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Female peacekeepers and the prevention of sexual abuses - a case study of the all-female Indian Unit in Liberia
|Issue Date:||2017-07-03 14:46:55 (UTC+8)|
|Reference:||Achvarina, Vera and Simon F. Reich. “No Place to Hide: Refugees, Displaced Persons, and the Recruitment of Child Soldiers.”International Security, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2006: 127-164. Al Jazeera News. “Kenya withdraws troops from UN mission in South Sudan.“ November 03, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/11/kenya-withdraws-troops-mission-south-sudan-161102165506898.html (accessed November 10, 2016). Amnesty International. “Annual Report: Liberia 2010.” May 28, 2010. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/annual-report-liberia-2010?page=show (accessed April 23, 2017). Anderholt, Charlotte. “Female Participation in Formed Police Units – A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations.” PKSOI Paper, September 2012. https://www.pksoi.org/document_repository/doc_lib/PKSOI_Paper_Females_in_Formed_Police_Units_(13-Sep-2012).pdf (accessed April 19, 2017). Atkinson, Philippa. “The war economy in Liberia.” Network Paper, Relief and Rehabilitation Network, May 1997. http://www.alnap.org/pool/files/networkpaper022.pdf. (accessed April 14, 2017). Atwood, Katharine A., Stephen B. Kennedy, Ernlee M. Barbu, Wede Nagbe, Wede Seekey, Prince Sirleaf, Oretha Perry, Roland B. Martin and Fred Sosu. “Transactional Sex among Youths in Post-conflict Liberia.”Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, Volume 29, Number 2, 2011, 113-122. BBC. “Liberia profile.” April 11, 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world- africa-13729504 (accessed April 14, 2017). Beber, Bernd, Michael J. Gilligan, Jenny Guardado and Sabrina Karim. “Peacekeeping, Compliance with International Norms, and Transactional Sex in Monrovia, Liberia.”International Organization, Volume 71, Issue 1, January 2017, 1-30. Beber, Bernd, Michael J. Gilligan, Jenny Guardado and Sabrina Karim. “U.N. Peacekeeping and Transactional Sex.”Washington Post, June 16, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2015/06/16/u-n-peacekeeping-and-transactional-sex/?utm_term=.ce31c24a0f87 (accessed April 25, 2017). Bekoe, Dorina and Christina Parajon. “Women’ s Role in Liberia’ s Reconstruction.” United States Institute of Peace, May 1, 2007. https://www.usip.org/publications/2007/05/womens-role-liberias-reconstruction (accessed April 18, 2017). |
75 Bertolazzi, Francesco. Women with a Blue Helmet – The integration of Women and Gender Issues in UN Peacekeeping Missions. Santo Domingo: UN-INSTRAW, 2010. Braumoeller, Bear F. and Anne E., Sartori. “Empirical-Quantitative approaches to the Study of International Relations.” In Cases, Numbers, Models: International Relations Research Methods,edited by Detlef F. Sprinz and Yael Wolinsky, 139-163, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2002. Bridges, Donna and Debbie Horsfall. “Increasing operational effectiveness in UN peacekeeping.”Armed Forces & Society 36 (2009): 120-130. Buchanan, Elsa. “DRC: Five UN peacekeepers suspended over fresh sexual abuse claims.”International Business Times, April 28, 2017. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/drc-five-un-peacekeepers-suspended-over-fresh-sexual-abuse-claims-1619171 (accessed April 29, 2017). Carey, Henry F. “Women and Peace and Security: The policy of implementing gender sensitivity norms in peacekeeping.”International Peacekeeping 8 (2001): 49-68. Cohen, Dara K. and Amelia Hoover Green. “Were 75 percent of Liberian women and girls raped? No. So why is the U.N. repeating that misleading ‘ statistic’ ?”The Washington Post, October 26, 2016. Cohen, Dara K.; Ameila Hoover Green and Elisabeth J. Wood: “Wartime Sexual Violence: Misconceptions, Implications and Ways Forward.” United States Institute of Peace, 02/2013. Coomaraswamy, Radhika. “Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, Securing the Peace.”Global Study, UN Women. http://www2.unwomen.org/-/media/files/un%20women/wps/highlights/unw-global-study- 1325-2015.pdf?v=1&d=20160323T192435 (accessed December 06, 2016). Cordell, Kristen A. “Security or Tokenism – Evaluating Role of Women as Peacekeepers within the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping.” PRIO. http://file.prio.no/projects/GenderResearch/GenderConference/Prio%20Paper,%20Cordell.doc. (accessed April 21, 2017)Crawford, Kerry and Julia Macdonald. “Establishing a Marketplace of Women in Peacekeeping –An Analysis of Gender Mainstreaming and Its Viability in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.”ASPJ Africa and Francophonie, 1st Quarter (2013): 80-96. Dennis, Peter. “A brief history of Liberia.“ The International Center for Transitional Justice, May 2006. 2ff, https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Liberia-Brief-History-2006-English.pdf (accessed April 14, 2017).
76 Evans, Graham and Jeffrey Newnham. The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. London: Penguin Book, 1998. Evans, Idirs, Jessica Lane, Jessica Pealer and Megan Turner. “A Conceptual Model of Peacebuilding and Democracy Building: Integrating the Fields.”Practicum Group, 2013. http://www.american.edu/sis/practica/upload/pdc-practicum-group-spring-2013-a-conceptual-model-of-peacebuilding-and-democracy-building-integrating-the-fields.pdf (accessed May 25, 2017). George, Alexander L. and Andrew Bennett. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Science.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Gerring, John. “What is a Case Study and What is it Good for?”American Political Science Review, Vol. 98 No. 2 (May 2004): 341-354. Grewal, Shabnam. “All female UN squad a success.”BBC News, June 21, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/this_world/6223246.stm (accessed April 18, 2017). Heathcote, Gina. “Participation, Gender and Security.” In Rethinking Peacekeeping, Gender Equality and Collective Security, edited by Gina Heathcote and Dianne Otto, 48-69. USA/UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Huber, Laura. “Power in Numbers? The Impact of Female Formed Police Units on Women’ s Empowerment.” Honors Thesis, University of Dayton, April 2014. IBIS, Concern Worldwide, Norwegian Refugee Council and Save the Children. “Passing the Test – the Real Cost of being a Student.” February 2014. http://ibisliberia.org/sites/default/files/media/pdf_global/liberia_pdf/final_brochure-srgbv-education_research_consortium-2014.pdf (accessed April 24, 2017). Inclusive Security. “National Action Plan Resource Center.” 2017. https://actionplans.inclusivesecurity.org (accessed January 02, 2017). Jacob, Margarete, Daniel Bendix and Ruth Stanley. Engendering SSR. A Workshop Report. Berlin, 2009. Jennings, Kathleen M. “Protecting Whom? Approaches to sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peacekeeping operations.” Fafo Report. http://www.fafo.no/~fafo/media/com_netsukii/20078.pdf (accessed December 06, 2016). Jennings, Kathleen M. “Women’ s participation in UN peacekeeping operations: agents of changeor stranded symbols?” Report,Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/137505/Women’ s%20participation%20in%20UN%20peacekeeping.pdf (accessed December 03, 2016). Jennings, Kathleen M. and Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic. UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications. MICROCON Research Working Paper 17. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, 2009.
77 Jett, Dennis. Why Peacekeeping Fails. New York: St. Marin’ s Press, 1999. John, Monique. “In Liberia, Girls and Women Face a Future without U.N. Peacekeepers.”Women’s eNews, September 7, 2016. http://womensenews.org/2016/09/in-liberia-girls-and-women-face-a-future-without-u-n-peacekeepers/ (accessed April 28, 2017). Jones, Nicola, Janice Cooper, Elizabeth Presler-Marshall and David Walker. “The fallout of rape as a weapon of war – The life-long and intergenerational impacts of sexual violence in conflict.” ODI, June 2014. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8990.pdf (accessed April 14, 2017). Karim, Sabrina. “Reevaluating Peacekeeping Effectiveness: Does Gender Neutrality Inhibit Progress?”International Interactions, 2016. Karim, Sabrina. “The Double-Edged Sword of Security Sector Gender Balancing Reforms: Survey Evidence From Liberia.” PhD Thesis, Emory University. Karim, Sabrina and Kyle Beardsley. “Explaining sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions.”Journal of Peace Research 53 no.1 (2016): 100-115. Karim, Sabrina and Kyle Beardsley. “Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?”International Interactions 39 (2013): 461-488. Kember, Olivia F. “The Impact of the Indian Formed Police Unit in the United Nations Mission in Liberia.” Master Thesis, Georgetown University, April 19, 2010. Kennedy, Caroline. “Gender and Security.” in Contemporary Security Studies, edited by Alan Collins, 117-130. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Third Edition, 2013. Kieh, George “Ending Liberia’ s Second Civil War: Religious Women as Peacemakers.” Berkley Centre for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, August 2013.Kirby, Paul and Laura J. Shepherd. “The futures past of the Women, Peace and Security agenda.”International Affairs 2 (2016): 373-392. Klinner, Maria (UNIS Intern). “Frauen für den Frieden.”Women for Peace. The Austrian Peacekeeper 4, August / September, 2016. http://www.unis.unvienna.org/pdf/AustrianPeacekeeper/austrian_peacekeeper_0416.pdf (accessed December 07, 2016). Kollie, Martin K. N. “Liberia: Stand Up for Girls and Step Up Against Rape.”AllAfrica, October13, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201610130870.html (accessed April 24, 2017).
78 Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, National AIDS Control and Macro International Inc. Liberia– Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Monrovia: LISGIS, 2008. Mason, Jennifer. “Introduction: The Challenge of Qualitative Research.” In Qualitative Researching. 2nd edition. edited by Jennifer Mason, 1-9. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: SAGE Publications: 2002. Matheson, Michael. Council Unbound: The Growth of UN Decision Making on Conflict and Postconflict Issues after the Cold War. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006. Mbadlanyana, Thembani and Freedom C. Onuoha. “Peacekeeping and post-conflict criminality –Challenges to the (re-) establishment of rule of law in Liberia.” ISS Paper 190, Institute for Security Studies, July, 2009. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/105909/PAPER190.pdf (accessed April 20, 2017).McConnell, Tristan. “All-female Unit keeps Peace in Liberia.”The Christian Science Monitor, March 21, 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0321/p06s01-woaf.html, (accessed April 18, 20017). Ministry of Justice Republic of Liberia. “MoJ Annual Report 2015.” 2015. http://moj.gov.lr/data/uploads/downloads/moj_annual_report_2015_version-charles.pdf (accessed April 24, 2017). Momodu, Sulaiman. “Educating Women for a Police Career.”UNMIL Focus 10, December 2006. https://unmil.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/unmilfocus10.pdf, (accessed April 19, 2017). Narayan, Chandrika. “UN commander fired over peacekeepers’ response in South Sudan.”CNN, November 01, 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/11/01/africa/south-sudan-violence-report/ (accessed November 10, 2016) Neudorfer, Kelly. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping: An Analysis of Risk and Prevention Factors. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014. Omanyondo, Marie-Claire O. “Sexual Gender-Based Violence and Health Facility Needs Assessment: Liberia.” WHO, September 2004. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/lbr/Liberia_GBV_2004_FINAL.pdf (accessed April 23, 2017). Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. “A/55/305.” Report, August 21, 2000. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/55/305, (accessed May 25, 2017). Peace Women. “Member States.” November, 2016. http://peacewomen.org/member-states (accessed January 02, 2017).
79 Refugee International. Must Boys be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation & Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions. Washington DC: Refugee International, 2005. Remenyi, Katherine. “Does the Inclusion of Women in Peace Building Processes Make a Difference?” Essay, Trinity College Dublin, E-International Relations, July 07, 2016. http://www.e-ir.info/2016/07/07/does-the-inclusion-of-women-in-peace-building-processes-make-a-difference/ (accessed November 18, 2016). Richey, Sara. “Is United Nations Peacekeeping a Practical Policy Instrument?: Factors that Influence the Success of Peacekeeping Operations.” Senior Honors Thesis, Indiana University Bloomington, May 2011. Ross, Alice. “Angelina Jolie says UN undermined by sexual abuse by peacekeepers.”The Guardian, September 08, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/08/angelina-jolie-un-peacekeepers-special- envoy (accessed December 07, 2016). Schoetzau, Barbara. “Women Peacekeepers Can Work with Female Victims, Set Example for Male Colleagues.”Voice of America, March, 2007. http://www.voanews.com/a/a-13-2007-03-12-voa65-66543917/554353.html (accessed November 15, 2016). SG Ban Ki-moon. “S/2015/203.” Report of the Secretary General, March 23, 2015. https://documents-dds ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N15/081/36/PDF/N1508136.pdf? OpenElement (accessed April 24, 2017). SG Boutros Boutros-Ghali. “A/47/277.” Report by the Secretary-General, June 17, 1992. http://www.un-documents.net/a47-277.htm, (accessed May 25, 2017). SG Kofi A. Annan. “S/2003/796.“ Letter to the President of the Security Council, July 29, 2003. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2003/769 (accessed April 18, 2017). SG Kofi A. Annan. “ST/SGB/2003/13.” Secretary-General’ s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, October 09, 2003. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=ST/SGB/2003/13 (accessed December 07, 2016). Simić, Olivera. “Does the Presence of Women Really Matter? Towards Combating Male SexualViolence in Peacekeeping Operations.”International Peacekeeping 17 no. 2 (2010): 188 —199. Sitkowski, Andrzej. UN Peacekeeping: Myth and Reality. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2006. Stachowitsch, Saskia. “Feminism and the Current Debates on Women in Combat.” Essay, University of Vienna, E-International Relations, February 19, 2013. http://www.e-ir.info/2013/02/19/feminism-and-the-current-debates-on-women-in-combat/
80 (accessed December 06, 2016). The Guardian. “United Nations widens sex abuse inquiry into peacekeepers in CAR.” March 31, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/31/united-nations-widens-sex-abuse-inquiry- peacekeepers-central-african-republic-car (accessed December 07, 2016). The Times of India. “All-women RAF contingent to join UN mission.“ October 08, 2006. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/All-women-RAF-contingent-to-join-UN-mission/articleshow/2120138.cms (accessed April 20, 2007). Tryggestad, Torunn L. “The Women, Peace and Security Agenda – 15 Years On.” Policy Brief, PRIO Centre on Gender, Peace and Security. http://file.prio.no/publication_files/prio/Tryggestad%20- %20The%20Women%20Peace%20and%20Security%20Agenda,%20GPS%20Policy%20Bri ef%201-2016.pdf (accessed December 06, 2016). UC Berkeley Library. “Monrovia – May. “ 2003. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EART/maps/monrovia.jpg (accessed May 02, 2017). UN. “Charter of the United Nations – Chapter VI.” 2017. http://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/chapter-vi/index.html. (accessed May 25, 2017). UN. “Formed Police Units.” 2017. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/units.shtml, (accessed April 19, 2017). UN. “Gender Statistics.” 2017. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/resources/statistics/gender.shtml (accessed April 19, 2017). UN. “Gender Statistics by Mission.” April 10, 2017. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/contributors/gender/2017gender/mar17.pdf (accessed Mai 01, 2017).UN, “Glossary on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse – Thematic Glossary of current Terminology related to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) in the context of the United Nations.”October 05, 2016. https://hr.un.org/sites/hr.un.org/files/UN%20Glossary%20on%20SEA.pdf (accessed May 03, 2017). UN. “Map UNMIL.” 2017. http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/unmil.pdf (accessed May 02, 2017). UN.“MONUC Background.” 2016. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/monuc/background.shtml (accessed November 15, 2016). UN. “UNMIL Background.” 2017.
81 http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmil/background.shtml (accessed April 14, 2017). UN. “United Nations Police.” 2017. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping /sites/police/policing.shtml, (accessed April 19, 2017). UNDP and UNIFEM. “Gender Sensitive Police Reform in Post Conflict Societies.” October 2007. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/gender/Gender%20and%20CPR/Policy%20briefing%20paper%20Gender%20Sensitive%20Police%20Reform%20in%20Post%20Conflict%20Societies.pdf, (accessed April 20, 2017) UN DPKO. Gender Resource Package for Peacekeeping Operations. New York: UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, 2004. UN DPKO. Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in Multidimensional Peace Operations. UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations Lessons Learned Unit,2000. UN DPKO and DFS. DPKO/DFS Guidelines – Integrating a Gender Perspective into the Work of the United Nations Military in Peacekeeping Operations. New York: Office of the Military Adviser, 2010. UN General Assembly. “A/64/712.” March 17, 2010. https://disarmament-library.un.org/UNODA/Library.nsf/9ecdac23f4777b1085257 6e40054e8fe/77df8e65bc013ce1852576410055638f/$FILE/A-65-100-Add1.pdf (accessed April 25, 2017). UNMIL. “Resolutions of the Security Council on UNMIL.” 2017. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmil/resolutions.shtml (accessed April 18, 2017). UNMIL. “UN Security Council extends UNMIL’ S mandate one last time.” December 27, 2016. https://unmil.unmissions.org/un-security-council-extends-unmil’ s-mandate-one-last-time (accessed April 18, 2017). UNMIL Legal and Judicial System Support Division. “Research on Prevalence and Attitudes to Rape in Liberia – September to October 2008.” 2008. http://www.stoprapenow.org/uploads/advocacyresources/1282163297.pdf (accessed April 24, 2017). UNMIL and OGA. Gender Mainstreaming In Peacekeeping Operations – Liberia 2003 – 2009. Accra, Ghana: UNMIL, September 2010. UNMIL and OHCHR. “Addressing Impunity for Rape in Liberia.” 2016 SGBV Report, October 2016. https://unmil.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/impunity_report_-_binding.pdf (accessed April 24, 2017).
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.