Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Applying TWINS framework to examine water security in India’s relations with Pakistan and Bangladesh
|Issue Date:||2017-07-04 09:49:52 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||雖然政治學界廣泛地討論水資源安全的問題, 可是迄今為止絕大部分的研究採取合作衝突相兩者互排斥的分析方法。有些學派主張水資源短缺一定導致衝突, 而制度主義學派認為在大多數情況下水資源安全推動國際合作。環境安全與衝突研究中的科學共識認為水資源不是衝突的起因而是合作的理由, 於是繼續提倡合作衝突兩者相互排斥的概念。筆者認為如今的非黑即白分析尚未能夠正確描述水資源安全的衝突合作相互作用的實際。碰到了這個研究空白的問題, 筆者應用 Naho Mirumachi發展的「TWINS」架構來檢視印度-巴基斯但與印度-孟加拉關係中的水資源安全。「TWINS」架構讓我們深入地檢視「1996年12月12日印孟簽署分享恆河水條約」與「1960印度河水域條約」這兩個條約。新世紀增長需求跟耗盡水資源的問題越來越清楚地標明, 根據這兩個條約，水資源的供水與解決衝突能力有限。雖然被視為跨界河川合作的成功故事, 可是這兩個條約不足消除潛在衝突, 而進一步表明衝與合作是同時存在的。最近印度政府表明關於水資源的政策改變, 比如最佳地利用1960印度河水域條約的規定或清拆法拉卡堰。為了防止安全化過程升高, 立即開展有意義的對話至關重要。|
|Reference:||Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera: India: Does the China-Pakistan economic corridor worry India? February 23, 2017. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/02/china-pakistan-economic-corridor-worry-india-170208063418124.html (accessed March 31, 2017).|
Allal, S., and M O'Connor. "Water Resource Distribution and Security in the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian Peace Process." In Environmental Change, Adaptation, and Security: NATO ASI Series, by S. C. Lonergan, 109-129. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
Arms Control Association. Arms Control Association: Factsheets: Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance. April 7, 2017. https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Nuclearweaponswhohaswhat (accessed May 30, 2017).
Asian Development Bank. "ADB: Publications: Asian Development Outlook 2013: Asia's Energy Challenge." Asian Development Bank website. April 2013. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/30205/ado2013_2.pdf (accessed March 26, 2017).
Bandyopadhyay, Jayanta, and Nilanjan Ghosh. "Hydro-Political Dynamics and Environmental Security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basin The case of Bangladesh-India Trans-boundary Water Relations." Research Journal Social Sciences, 2016: 1-12.
Barbier, Edward B. "Water and Economic Growth." The Economic Record, 2004: 1-16.
Barnaby, Wendy. "Do Nations go to War over Water." Nature, 2009: 282-283.
BBC. BBC: Asia: India: Is India facing its worst-ever water crisis? March 27, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-35888535 (accessed April 16, 2017).
—. "BBC: Will Central Asia fight over water?" BBC website. October 25, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-37755985 (accessed October 26, 2016).
—. BBC: World: Asia: India: Militants attack Indian army base in Kashmir 'killing 17'. September 18, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-37399969 (accessed December 2, 2016).
—. BBC: World: Asia: India: Why India's water dispute with Pakistan matters. September 28, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-37483359 (accessed October 14, 2016).
Biswas, Asit K. "Third World Centre for Water Management: Indus Water Treaty: the Negotiating Process." Third World Centre for Water Management website. January 22, 2009. http://www.thirdworldcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/induswattreaty.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017).
Brown, Oli, Anne Hammill, and Robert McLeman. "Climate Change as the ‘New’ Security Threat." International Affairs, 2007: 1141-1154.
Brzoska, MIchael. " The securitization of climate change and the power of conceptions of security." Sicherheit und Frieden (Security and Peace), 2009: 137-145.
Buzan, Barry. "Rethinking Security after the Cold War." Cooperation and Conflict, 1997: 5-28.
Chellaney, Brahma. "China's Hydro-Hegemony." International Herald Tribune, 2013.
Commonwealth Legal Information Institute. "Commonwealth Legal Information Institute: Indian Treaty Series: 1948: Inter-Dominion Agreement Between the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan, on the Canal Water Dispute Between East and West Punjab." Commonwealth Legal Information Institute website. May 4, 1948. http://www.commonlii.org/in/other/treaties/INTSer/1948/3.html (accessed March 5, 2017).
Cooley, Heather, Juliet Christian-Smith, and Peter H. Gleick. "Pacific Institute: Understanding and Reducing the Risks of Climate Change for Transboundary Waters." Pacific Institute website. December 2009. http://pacinst.org/app/uploads/2013/02/transboundary_water_and_climate_report3.pdf (accessed April 5, 2017).
Cooley, John K. "The War over Water." Foreign Policy, 1984: 3-26.
Dartmouth University. Dartmouth: Flood: Archive: 1988. July 2003. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/1988sum.htm (accessed March 31, 2017).
De Châtel, Francesca. "The Role of Drought and Climate Change in the Syrian Uprising: Untangling the Triggers of the Revolution." Middle Eastern Studies, 2014: 521-535.
Deudney, Daniel. "The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security." Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 1990: 461-476.
Dhaka Tribune. Dhaka Tribune: Farakka propaganda irks Bangladesh. September 3, 2016. http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2016/09/03/farakka-propaganda-irks-bangladesh/ (accessed May 3, 2017).
Dimitrov, Radoslav S. "Water,Con£ict, and Security: A Conceptual Minefield." Society and Natural Resources, 2002: 677-691.
Dinar, Shlomi. International Water Treaties: Negotiation and Cooperation Along Transboundary Rivers. New York: Routledge, 2007.
Dr. Mital, Aruna R. "Indo-Bangladesh water sharing issues." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, 2016: 7-11.
Dr. Shaheen, Akhtar. "IRS: Emerging Challanges to Indus Water Treaty: Issues of compliance & transboundary impacts of Indian hydroprojects on the Western Rivers." Institute of Regional Studies website. 2010. http://www.irs.org.pk/f310.pdf (accessed March 31, 2017).
Economic Times. Economic Times: I love Bangladesh, but Bengal is my priority: Mamata Banerjee on Teesta issue . APril 26¸, 2017. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/i-love-bangladesh-but-bengal-is-my-priority-mamata-banerjee-says-on-teesta-issue/articleshow/58369614.cms (accessed May 4, 2017).
—. Economic Times: Teesta agreement unlikely during Sheikh Hasina's visit . April 6, 2017. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/teesta-agreement-unlikely-during-sheikh-hasinas-visit/articleshow/58047304.cms (accessed May 3, 2017).
FAO. "FAO Aquastat: Maps: TRWR." FAO Aquastat website. 2015. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/maps/TRWR.Cap_eng.pdf (accessed December 21, 2016).
FAO UN. "UNEP: Vital Water Graphics: Dependency ratio in renewable water ." UNEP website. 2007. http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/article79.html (accessed December 21, 2016).
Femia, Francesco, and Caitlin Werell. The Center for Climate and Security: Syria: Climate Change, drought, and social unrest. February 29, 2012. https://climateandsecurity.org/2012/02/29/syria-climate-change-drought-and-social-unrest/ (accessed October 1, 2016).
Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy: v+Foreign Foreign Policy: Why the India-Pakistan War Over Water Is So Dangerous. September 30, 2016. http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/09/30/why-the-india-pakistan-war-over-water-is-so-dangerous-indus-waters-treaty/ (accessed 18 2016, December).
Gassert, Francis, Paul Reig, Tien Shiao, Matt Landis, and Matt Luck. “World Resource Institute: Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0.” World Resource Institute website. January 2013. https://wri.org/sites/default/files/pdf/aqueduct_metadata_global.pdf (accessed March 15, 2017).
Gleditsch, Nils Petter. "US EPA: Regional Conflict and Climate Change ." United States Environmental Protection Agency Website. January 28, 2011. https://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eerm.nsf/vwan/ee-0566-122.pdf/$file/ee-0566-122.pdf (accessed December 6, 2016).
Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Taylor Owen, Kathryn Furlong, and Bethany Lacina. "Conflicts over Shared Rivers: Resource Wars or Fuzzy Boundaries?" Political Geography, 2006: 361-382.
Gleick, Peter H. "Water, Drought, Climate Change, and Conflict in Syria." Weather, Climate and Society, July 2014: 331-340.
Gleick, Peter H. The World's Water . The Biennal Report on Freshwater Resources, Volume 8, Washington DC: Island Press, 2014.
Gleick, Peter H. „Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security.“ International Security, 1993: 79-112.
Gleick, Peter H. "Water and Terrorism." Water Policy, 2006: 481-503.
Global Fire Power. Global Fire Power: Defense Spending Budget. 2017. http://www.globalfirepower.com/defense-spending-budget.asp (accessed May 30, 2017).
Global Risk Insights. Global Risk Insights: India-Pakistan tensions: Would India really abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty? October 25, 2016. http://globalriskinsights.com/2016/10/india-pakistan-tensions-indus-waters-treaty/ (accessed April 5, 2017).
Government of India. Government of India: Press Information Bureau: Indo-Pak talks on Tulbul navigation and Wullar projects. August 14, 2006. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=19835 (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Government of India: Press Information Bureau: Water sharing problem with Pakistan. March 4, 2010. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=58876 (accessed MArch 31, 2017).
Government of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage: PR No. 208 Islamabad: November 23, 2016. November 23, 2016. http://www.pid.gov.pk/?p=29907 (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Government of Pakistan: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage: Press Information Department: PR No. 161 WATER DISASTER LOOMING IF WE FAIL TO PLAN AND ACT NOW: PROFESSOR AHSAN IQBAL. March 20, 2014. http://www.pid.gov.pk/?p=2826 (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Government of Pakistan: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage: Press Information Department: PR No.174 PRIME MINISTER MUHAMMAD NAWAZ SHARIF MEETING WITH UN SECRETARY GENERAL ANTONIO GUTERRES Davos . January¸ 19, 2017. http://www.pid.gov.pk/?p=33290 (accessed April 4, 2017).
—. Government of Pakistan: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage: Press Infromation Department: PR No. 221 Islamabad: September 27, 2016. September 27, 2016. http://www.pid.gov.pk/?p=26735 (accessed March 29, 2017).
Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. "Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh: Ministry of Water Resources: Joint Rivers Commission, Bangladesh: Ganges Water vTreaty 1996." Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh website. 1996. http://jrcb.gov.bd/attachment/Gganges_Water_Sharing_treaty,1996.pdf (accessed April 16, 2017).
Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh: Ministry of Water Resources. 2017. http://www.mowr.gov.bd/site/search?key=ganges (accessed April 15, 2017).
GRACE Communications Foundation. GRACE Communications Foundation: Nexus Guide: How Food, Water and Energy are Connected. 2014. http://www.gracelinks.org/media/pdf/nexus_guide_finalforweb.pdf (accessed June 14, 2016).
Haftendorn, Helga. "Water and International Conflict." Third World Quarterly 21:1, 2000: 51-68.
Hagen, Peter. Future Challanges: Local: Jordan’s Water Crisis. December 21, 2011. https://futurechallenges.org/local/jordans-water-crisis/ (accessed October 1, 2016).
Hammer, Joshua. Smithsonian Magazine: Innovation: Is a Lack of Water to Blame for the Conflict in Syria? June 2013. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/is-a-lack-of-water-to-blame-for-the-conflict-in-syria-72513729/?no-ist (accessed October 5, 2016).
Hanasz, Paula. "Global Water Forum: Sharing waters vs. sharing rivers: The 1996 Ganges Treaty." Global Water Forum website. July 28, 2014. http://www.globalwaterforum.org/2014/07/28/sharing-waters-vs-sharing-rivers-the-1996-ganges-treaty/?pdf=11177 (accessed January 28, 2017).
Hanqin, Xue. "Relativity in international water law." Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, 1992: 45-57.
Hensel, Paul R., and Marit Brochmann. “Pau Hensel: Research.” Paul Hensel Website. August 2008. http://www.paulhensel.org/Research/apsa08r.pdf (accessed November 2016, 2).
Hindustan Times. Hindustan Times: India News: India, Pakistan discuss Indus Waters Treaty dispute in Islamabad. March 25, 2017. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-pakistan-discuss-indus-waters-treaty-dispute-in-islamabad/story-H7gEYYTsDl4yPQh24NPDFP.html (accessed March 28, 2017).
—. Hindustan Times: Pakistan seeks details of India’s hydel projects in Kashmir. March 25, 2017. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pakistan-seeks-details-of-india-s-hydel-projects-in-kashmir/story-waB6wJToZ6pZFRbz5cXFcP.html (accessed May 12, 2017).
—. Hindustan Times: Punjab should honour SYL pact, want amicable solution to inter-state disputes: Khattar. May 12, 2017. http://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/punjab-should-honour-syl-pact-want-amicable-solution-to-inter-state-disputes-khattar/story-KkV57ITQTN9L2fpnkNlw2M.html (accessed May 13, 2017).
Homer-Dixon, Thomas. Environment, Scarcity and Violence. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. „Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases.“ International Security Vol. 19, No. 1, Summer 1994: 5-40.
Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. "On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict." International Security Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991: pp. 76-116.
Hossain, Ishtiaq. "Bangladesh-India Relations: The Ganges Water-." Asian Affairs: An American Review, 2010: 131-150.
IDN. In Depth News: Bangladesh Opting for Peace Rather Than Nuclear Arms. June 25, 2016. http://indepthnews.net/index.php/nuclear-abolition/488-bangladesh-opting-for-peace-rather-than-nuclear-arms (accessed May 5, 2017).
International Monetary Fund. "IMF: Issues in Managing Water Challanges and Policy Instruments: Regional perspectives and Case Studies." IMF website. June 2015. Issues in Managing Water Challanges and Policy Instruments: (accessed January 2, 2017).
International Policy Digest. International Policy Digest: India-Bangladesh River Water Sharing: Politics over Cooperation. December 20, 2013. https://intpolicydigest.org/2013/12/20/india-bangladesh-river-water-sharing-politics-cooperation/ (accessed May 4, 2017).
Ismail, Haweya. Future Directions: Global Food and Water Crises: Climate Change, Food and Water Security in Bangladesh. March 26, 2016. http://www.futuredirections.org.au/publication/climate-change-food-water-security-bangladesh/ (accessed May 5, 2017).
Iyer, Ramaswamy R. "India–China–Brahmaputra: Suggestions for an Approach." Economic & Political Weekly, 2015: 13-15.
Kawser, Mohammad Abul, and Md. Abdus Samad. Bandung: Journal of the Global South: Political history of Farakka Barrage and its effects on environment in Bangladesh. 2016. https://bandungjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40728-015-0027-5 (accessed April 15, 2017).
Kawser, Mohammad Abul, and Md. Abdus Samad. "Political history of Farakka Barrage and its effects on environment in Bangladesh." Bandung: Journal of the Global South, 2016.
Knoema. Knoema: World Data Atlas: Bangladesh - Military expenditure as a share of GDP. 2016. https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/Military-expenditure-as-a-share-of-GDP (accessed May 5, 2017).
Kuross, Evem. Fair Observer: International Security: Water Scarcity Risks Being a Source of Conflict. March 4, 2015. http://www.fairobserver.com/region/middle_east_north_africa/water-scarcity-risks-being-a-source-of-conflict-28740/ (accessed June 16, 2016).
Lovelle, Madeleine. Future Directions: Co-operation and the Brahmaputra: China and India Water Sharing. March 15, 2016. http://www.futuredirections.org.au/publication/co-operation-and-the-brahmaputra-china-and-india-water-sharing/ (accessed May 6, 2017).
Malhotra, Pia. "Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies: Water Issues between Nepal, India &." Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies website. July 2010. http://www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/SR95.pdf (accessed May 6, 2017).
Mirumachi, Naho. „LWRG: Mirumachi: Transboundary Water Interaction Nexus TWINS.“ London Water Research Group. 2014. https://lwrg.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/mirumachi-transboundary-water-interaction-nexus-twins.pdf (poskus dostopa 21. December 2016).
—. Transboundary Water Politics in the Developing World. London: Routledge, 2015.
Mirza, M. Monirul Qader. The Ganges Water Diversion: Environmental Effects and Implications. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media B.V., 2006.
New York Times. New York Times: World: Asia: Starved for Energy, Pakistan Braces for a Water Crisis. February 12, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/13/world/asia/pakistan-braces-for-major-water-shortages.html?_r=0 (accessed March 12, 2017).
Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today: ‘India out to destroy Pakistan’s agriculture’. August 1, 2012. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/08/01/india-out-to-destroy-pakistans-agriculture/ (accessed March 29, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Before India revokes Indus Water Treaty, China blocks tributary of Brahmaputra river in Tibet to build dam. October 1, 2016. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2016/10/01/before-india-revokes-indus-water-treaty-china-blocks-tributary-of-brahmaputra-river-in-tibet-to-build-dam/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Country may face famine if appropriate measures not taken: Asif. October 25, 2013. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2013/10/25/country-may-face-famine-if-appropriate-measures-not-taken-asif/ (accessed March 30, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Fazl demands punishment for Jamaat. January 4, 2012. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/01/04/fazl-demands-punishment-for-jamaat-ali-shah/ (accessed March 28, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: India benefitting from Indus Water Treaty flaws. March 1, 2011. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/03/01/india-benefitting-from-indus-water-treaty-flaws/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: India responsible for floods in Pakistan: JuD. September 14, 2014. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2014/09/14/india-responsible-for-floods-in-pakistan-jud/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: India wants infertile Pakistan: PEW. March 23, 2014. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2014/03/23/india-wants-infertile-pakistan-pew/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: India, Afghanistan discussing Kabul river projects to deny water to Pakistan. October 14, 2016. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2016/10/14/india-afghanistan-discussing-kabul-river-projects-to-deny-water-to-pakistan/ (accessed March 28, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Indus Water Treaty: Second round of talks to be held today. March 21, 2017. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/03/21/indus-water-treaty-second-round-of-talks-to-be-held-today/ (accessed May 13, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Kashmir hydel dams will intensify Indo-Pak conflict: US. June 24, 2011. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/06/24/kashmir-hydel-dams-will-intensify-indo-pak-conflict-us/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: Pakistan won’t accept any modifications to Indus Waters Treaty: Fatemi. December 17, 2016. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2016/12/17/pakistan-wont-accept-any-modifications-to-indus-waters-treaty-fatemi/ (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. Pakistan Today: We came all the way to Pakistan and you didn’t even ask us for water: Indian Indus Water delegation. March 24, 2017. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/03/24/we-came-all-the-way-to-pakistan-and-you-didnt-even-ask-us-for-water-indian-indus-water-delegation/ (accessed May 13, 2017).
Permanent Court of Arbitration. "Permanent Court of Arbitration: PCA press release: Indus waters Kishenganga Arbitration(Pakistan v. India)." Permanent Court of Arbitration website. December 21, 2013. https://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1683 (accessed March 25, 2017).
Postel, Sandra. Last oasis: Facing water scarcity. New York: . New York: W. W. Norton., 1997.
ProPakistani. ProPakistani: Understanding the Indus Water Treaty: Can India Really Block Pakistan’s Rivers? September 2016. https://propakistani.pk/2016/09/27/understanding-indus-water-treaty-can-india-really-block-pakistans-rivers/ (accessed March 12, 2017).
Rahaman, Muhammad Mizanur. "International Water Law: Articles: The Ganges Water Conflict: A comparative analysis of 1977 Agreement and 1996 Treaty ." International Water Law website. 2006. http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/bibliography/articles/general/Rahaman-Ganges-Asteriskos.pdf (accessed December 13, 2016).
Rahman, Mizanur Muhammad. "International Water Law: The Ganges water Conflict. A comparative analysis of 1977 Agreement and 1996 Treaty." International Water Law website. 2006. http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/bibliography/articles/general/Rahaman-Ganges-Asteriskos.pdf (accessed February 15, 2017).
Rashedul, Rana. Pathway to Paris: Climate Refugees Flooding into Dhaka. March 28, 2015. http://www.pathwaytoparis.org/dhaka-refugees (accessed May 4, 2017).
Redclift, Michael. "Environmental Security and Competition for the Environment." Edited by S.C. Lonergan. Environmental Change, Adaptation and Security: NATO ASI Series, 1999: 3-16.
Renner, Michael. „Worldwatch Paper: The Anatomy of Resource Wars.“ Worldwatch Institute Website. October 2002. http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/WP162.pdf (poskus dostopa 5. December 2016).
Revenga, C., J. Brunner, N. Henniger, K. Kassem, and R. Payner. "WRI: Publications: Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: Freshwater systems." World Resource Institute website. October 2000. http://www.wri.org/publication/pilot-analysis-global-ecosystems-2 (accessed December 21, 2016).
Rogelj, Joeri, et al. "Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C." Nature, 2016: 631–639.
Rosemann, Nils. "Pakistan Water Gateway: Drinking Water Crisis in Pakistan and the Issue of Bottled Water The Case of Nestlé’s ‘Pure Life’." Pakistan Water Gateway website. April 2005. http://waterinfo.net.pk/sites/default/files/knowledge/Drinking%20Water%20Crisis%20in%20Pakistan%20and%20the%20Issue%20of%20Bottled%20Water%20the%20Case%20of%20Nestles%20Pure%20Life%20-%20Apr%202005.pdf (accessed April 5, 2017).
Spillmann, Kurt R. "Kriegsursache der kommenden Generation ? Der Kampf um das Wasser." Internationale Politik, 2000: 47-56.
Stanford University. Stanford University: Mapping Militant Organizations: Lashkar-e-Taiba. January 30, 2016. http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/79 (accessed March 31, 2017).
Tanzeema, S., and I. M. Faisal. "Sharing the Ganges : a critical analysis of the water sharing treaties." Water Policy, 2001: 13-28.
The Daily Star. The Daily Star: Farakka Barrage is hurting Bangladesh and India. March 13, 2017. http://www.thedailystar.net/perspective/farakka-barrage-hurting-bangladesh-and-india-1374838 (accessed May 4, 2017).
The Diplomat. The Diplomat: Pakistan May Face a Water Shortage. January 15, 2015. http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/pakistan-may-face-a-water-shortage/ (accessed March 12, 2017).
—. The Diplomat: Will Climate Change Spark Conflict in Bangladesh? June 27, 2014. http://thediplomat.com/2014/06/will-climate-change-spark-conflict-in-bangladesh/ (accessed May 4, 2017).
The Economic Times. The Economic Times: Politics and Nation: What is the Indus Waters Treaty and can India abrogate it? September 23, 2016. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/what-is-the-indus-waters-treaty-and-can-india-abrogate-it/articleshow/54480387.cms (accessed December 1, 2016).
The Guardian. The Guardian: Ganges and Yamuna rivers granted same legal rights as human beings. March 21, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/21/ganges-and-yamuna-rivers-granted-same-legal-rights-as-human-beings (accessed May 4, 2017).
—. The Guardian: World: Development: India set to start massive project to divert Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. May 18, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/may/18/india-set-to-start-massive-project-to-divert-ganges-and-brahmaputra-rivers (accessed April 15, 2017).
The Hindu. The Hindu Business Line: Agri Business: Shift to less water-intensive crops, TN govt tells farmers. April 21, 2017. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/shift-to-less-waterintensive-crops-tn-govt-tells-farmers/article9657248.ece (accessed May 5, 2017).
—. The Hindu: Refugees in their own land as Ganga swallows home. January 29, 2017. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-otherstates/Refugees-in-their-own-land-as-Ganga-swallows-home/article17111487.ece (accessed May 4, 2017).
The Independent. Independent: Asia: India is stealing water of life, says Pakistan. March 26, 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-is-stealing-water-of-life-says-pakistan-1654291.html (accessed March 30, 2917).
The New York Times. New York Times: Sharing Ganges Waters, India and Bangladesh Test the Depth of Cooperation. May 25, 1997. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/05/25/world/sharing-ganges-waters-india-and-bangladesh-test-the-depth-of-cooperation.html (accessed April 15, 2017).
The News International. The News International: Modi threatens to turn Pakistan into desert. November 26, 2016. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/167830-Modi-threatens-to-turn-Pakistan-into-desert?fromNewsdog=1 (accessed March 13, 2017).
The Telegraph. The Telegraph: World news: Asia: Mumbai terrorist group threaten Indian 'water jihad'. April 27, 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/7639449/Mumbai-terrorist-group-threaten-Indian-water-jihad.html (accessed March 31, 2017).
The Times of India. The Times of India: Government forms high-level task force on Indus Water Treaty. December 17, 2016. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/government-forms-high-level-task-force-on-indus-water-treaty/articleshow/56036926.cms (accessed March 13, 2017).
—. The Times of India: Narendra Modi promises Indus water to Punjab. January 28, 2017. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/assembly-elections/punjab/news/narendra-modi-promises-indus-water-to-punjab/articleshow/56826613.cms (accessed March 14, 2017).
—. The Times of India: World: Pakistan: Delhi's revocation of Indus treaty will be an act of war, warns Sartaj Aziz. September 28, 2016. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/pakistan/Delhis-revocation-of-Indus-treaty-will-be-an-act-of-war-warns-Sartaj-Aziz/articleshow/54554009.cms (accessed December 15, 2016).
—. Times of India: India rigid on Indus treaty change, but pushing for Teesta deal. March 27, 2017. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-rigid-on-indus-treaty-change-but-pushing-for-teesta-deal/articleshow/57845999.cms (accessed May 13, 2017).
—. Times of India: The Teesta river dispute explained in 10 points. April 9, 2017. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/the-teesta-river-dispute-explained-in-10-points/articleshow/58091320.cms (accessed May 3, 2017).
—. Times of India: Wullar Barrage/Tulbul Navigation Project. July 29, 2004. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/Wullar-Barrage/Tulbul-Navigation-Project/articleshow/794689.cms? (accessed mARCH 31, 2017).
The Water Page. "The Water Page: Farakka Water Treaty: Treaty Between the government of the Republic of India and the government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh on Sharing of the Ganga/Ganges Waters at Farakka." The Water Page website. December 12, 1996. http://www.thewaterpage.com/farakka_water_treaty.htm (accessed January 28, 2017).
Thomas, Kimberley. South Asia Journal: Water Under the Bridge? Int’l Resource Conflict and Post-Treaty Dynamics in South Asia. July 2, 2012. http://southasiajournal.net/water-bridge-intl-resource-conflict-posttreaty-dynamics-south-asia/ (accessed May 5, 2017).
—. "South Asia Journal: Water Under the Bridge? Int’l Resource Conflict and Post-Treaty Dynamics in South Asia." South Asia Journal website. July 2, 2012. http://southasiajournal.net/water-bridge-intl-resource-conflict-posttreaty-dynamics-south-asia/ (accessed February 16, 2017).
Time Magazine. Time Magazine: How India's Success Is Killing Its Holy River. July 19, 2010. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2002524,00.html (accessed May 4, 2017).
Transboundary Waters. Transboundary Waters: Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: The Indus Water Treaty . 2007. http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Indus_New.htm (accessed December 2, 2016).
Tuchman Matthews, Jessica. „Redefining Security.“ Foreign Affairs, 1989: 162-177.
TWAP. Transboundary Water Assesment Programme. 2016. http://twap-rivers.org/#global-basins (accessed February 8, 2017).
UNDP. Human Developmenr Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
—. "Human Development Report 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis." United Nations Development Programme Website. 2006. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/267/hdr06-complete.pdf (accessed November 3, 2016).
UNESCO; UNWWAP; UN-Water. "UNDCWS: United Nations World Water Development Report 4. Volume 1: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk." UN-Water Documentation Centre on Water and Sanitation. March 2012. http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/WWDR4%20Volume%201-Managing%20Water%20under%20Uncertainty%20and%20Risk.pdf (accessed March 28, 2017).
UN-Water. "UN Water: Downloads: Transboundary Waters." UN Water Website. 2008. http://www.unwater.org/downloads/UNW_TRANSBOUNDARY.pdf (accessed October 4, 2016).
Urban, Jessica Leann. Nation, Immigration and Environmental Security. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Wallensteen, Peter, and Margareta Sollenberg. "Armed Conflict 1989–2000." Journal of Peace Research, 2001: 629–644.
Walt, Stephen M. "The Renaissance of Security Studies." International Studies Quarterly, 1991: 211-239.
Wikileaks. "Wikileaks: Cable: 2008 UN Drought Appeal For Syria." Wikileaks Website. November 26, 2008. https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08DAMASCUS847_a.html (accessed October 12, 2016).
Wirth, David A. "Climate Chaos." Foreign Policy no.74, 1989: 3-22.
Wolf, Aaron T. "Shared Waters: Conflict and Cooperation." Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 2007: 3.1-3.29.
Wolf, Aaron T., and Joshua T. Newton. Transboundary Waters: Case Studies: Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: The Ganges River controversy. 2007. http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Ganges_New.htm (accessed February 15, 2017).
World Bank. World Bank: Data catalog: GDP ranking, PPP based. February 1, 2017. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GDP_PPP.pdf (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. World Bank: Indicator: Population. 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=IN-PK-BD (accessed May 4, 2017).
—. World Bank: Indicator: Population growth (annual %). February 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?locations=IN-PK (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. World Bank: Indicators: Military expenditure (% of GDP). February 1, 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS?locations=IN-PK&year_high_desc=false (accessed March 31, 2017).
—. World Bank: Indicators: Population growth (annual %). 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?locations=IN (accessed April 4, 2017).
—. World Bank: Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters). 2015. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.H2O.INTR.PC (poskus dostopa 10. December 2016).
—. "World Bank: Resources: Indus Water Treaty 1960." World Bank website. 1960. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSOUTHASIA/Resources/223497-1105737253588/IndusWatersTreaty1960.pdf (accessed December 9, 2016).
—. World Bank: Water: Overview. September 16, 2016. http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water/overview (accessed November 5, 2016).
World Economic Forum Water Initiative. Water Security: The water-food-energy-climate nexus. Washington: Island Press, 2011.
World Rice Production. World Rice Production: World Rice Production 2016/2017: April 2017. April 2017. https://www.worldriceproduction.com/ (accessed May 5, 2017).
World Water. World Water: Conflict list: India. 2017. http://www2.worldwater.org/conflict/list/ (accessed May 13, 2017).
—. "World Water: Conflicts: List." World Water website. 2016. http://www2.worldwater.org/conflict/list/ (accessed December 21, 2016).
WRIS. India Water Resource Information System: India's Water Wealth. March 2, 2015. http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/index.php?title=India%27s_Water_Wealth (accessed January 2, 2017).
Zeitoun, Mark, and Jeroen Warner. "Hydro-hegemony: A framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts." Water Policy, 2006: 435–460.
Zeitoun, Mark, and Naho Mirumachi. "Transboundary water interaction I: reconsidering conflict and cooperation." International Environmental Agreements, 2008: 297–316.
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.