Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 韓日慰安婦協議:尚未解決的問題
The ROK-Japan comfort women agreement: an unresolved issue
Authors: 劉柔拿
Liu, Yuna Esther
Contributors: 李明
Lee, Ming
Liu, Yuna Esther
Keywords: 日本
South Korea
Comfort women
Comfort women agreement
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-07-11 12:13:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 2015 年年底,⽇本與韓國政府迅速發表有關慰安婦議題的協議。雖然此協
韓國⼈對於⽇本道歉持續不滿的原因。本研究會依循2015 年協議無效,並進⼀
At the end of year 2015, Japanese and South Korean governments
announced a quick agreement over the long-standing issue of “comfort
women.” While the agreement won international praises, it raised sharp
criticisms from the South Korean citizens, the former comfort women and
their supporters. This “final and irreversible” deal was seen as a betrayal
of the victims, leading hundreds of South Korean protesters including
former comfort women out on the street to denounce the deal. The comfort
women issue remained a stubbornly unsolvable issue between the two
countries. For the past decades, South Korean people were never satisfied
with Japan’s past apologies. This thesis aims to study the reasons behind
South Korean people’s constant dissatisfaction towards Japan’s
allegations; to trace the ineffectiveness 2015 agreement; and to reveal the
true purpose behind the agreement. This thesis is based on qualitative
analysis of various scholarly books, journals and reports relevant to the
topic at hand.
Reference: References
Government Documents
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2014. Statement by Prime Minister Tomiichi
Murayama on the Occasion of the Establishment of the “Asian Women’s
Fund” MOFA. Retrieved from
The Nuremberg Trial and the Tokyo War Crimes Trials (1945-1948). n.d. United States
of America Department of State: Office of the Historian. Retrieved from
Non-Governmental Documents
About TWRF. n.d. Taipei Women’s Rescue Foundation. Retrieved from
Asian Women’s Fund. n.d. The Comfort Women Issue and the Asian Women’s Fund.
Asian Women’s Fund. Retrieved from
Askin, K.D. 2008. Rape as a Weapon of War: Accountability for Sexual Violence in
Conflict. Open Society Foundations. 1-14. Retrieved from
Bower, E. Z., Hiebert, M., Nguyen, P., & Poling, G.B. 2015. Southeast Asia’s
Geopolitical Centrality and the U.S.- Japan alliance. Center for Strategic &
International Studies. Retrieved from
Chanlett-Avery, E. 2017. Pivotal Issues in Korea-Japan-U.S. Relations: Perspectives
from Emerging Leaders. The Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation.
Retrieved from
Dokdo Research Institute. 2008. The Truth: Dokdo is Korean Territory. Dokdo
Research Institute. Retrieved from
Etsuro, T. 2008. Postwar Responsibilities of Japan: “Comfort Women”, Military
Sexual Slavery-Non-Fulfillment of Obligations for Apology, Compensation,
and Punishment and the Criticism of the Treaty Defense by Japan.
Japan Fellowship of Reconciliation (JFOR). Retrieved from
Feminist Network for Decolonization (FeND). 2016. A Fact Sheet on Japanese
Military “Comfort Women”. FeND. Retrieved from
Friedhoff, K. 2017. Pivotal Issues in Korea-Japan-U.S. Relations: Perspectives from
Emerging Leaders. The Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation. Retrieved
Fisher, B. A. 2007. Yasukuni Shrine: Typhoon’s Eye of Japan’s Spiritual/ Political
Storm Rejecting Wartime Victim Redress. Columbia University.
Retrieved from
Hashimoto, A. 1999. Japanese and German Projects of Moral Recovery: Toward a
New Understanding of War Memories in Defeated Nations. Edwin O.
Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. Retrieved from
Hideaki, K. 2014. Comfort Women in Korea. Society for the Dissemination of
Historical Fact. Retrieved from
Hiromichi, M. 2012. The Truth About the “Comfort Women”. WAC Magazine.
Retrieved from
Japan and Republic of Korea. Tokyo, 1966. United Nations Treaty, vol. 583, No.
8473, available from
Koyama, T. 2013. Japan: The Japanese Military Sexual Slavery (“Comfort Women”)
Issue (50). Seoul: The Korean council for the Women Drafted for Military
Sexual Slavery by Japan.
McDevitt, M.A., & Lea, C. K. 2013. Japan’s Territorial Disputes.
CNA Maritime Asia Project. Retrieved from
Stokes, H. S. 2014. Comfort Women in Korea. Society for the Dissemination of
Historical Fact. Retrieved from
Sutter, R. G., Brown., M. E., Adamson, T.J.A., Mochizuki, M.M., & Ollapally, D. 2013.
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability. The George
Washington University. Retrieved from
The Genron NPO and East Asia Institute. 2015. The 3rd Japan-South Korea Joint
Public Opinion Poll. Tokyo, Japan: The Genron NPO and East Asia Institute.
Retrieved from
UNCHR, Report on the Mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea, the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of Military Sexual Slavery
in Wartime, 1996/53, UNECOSOC, 52nd Sess, UN Doc E/CN.4 (1996) 53.
Women’s Active Museum on War and Peace (WAM). 2016. Japan’s Military Sexual
Slavery: NGO Alternative Information to the Government Reply to the List of
Issues (63). Geneva: Women’s Active Museum on War and Peace.
Wong, T. C. 2009. South Korea-China Mutual Perceptions: The Good, The Bad, and
The Ugly. SAIS U.S.-Korea Yearbook 2009. Retrieved from
Barkan, E. 2000. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical
Injustices. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Cai, K. G. 2008. The Political Economy of East Asia: Regional and National
Dimensions. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chang, P. Y. 2006. Carrying the Torch in the Darkest Hours. In Buswell. R. E. Jr.,
and T. S. Lee (Ed.), Christianity in Korea (195-220). Honolulu, HI: University
of Hawaii Press
Chong, J. H. 2007. Between Ally and Partner: Korea-China Relations and the United
States. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Dolgopol, U., & Paranjape, S. 1994. Comfort Women: An Unfinished Ordeal.
Geneva: Switzerland: International Commission of Jurists.
Edwards, W. 2013. Comfort Women: A History of Japanese Forced Prostitution
During the Second World War. Absolute Crime.
Engert, S. 2016. Japan- China and the Two Korea: The Apologia Syndrome. In C.
Daase, S. Engert, M. Horelt, J. Renner and R. Strassner (Ed.), Apology and
Reconciliation in International Relations: The Importance of Being Sorry.
New York, NY: Routledge.
Glosserman, B., & Snyder, S. A. 2015. The Japan- South Korea Identity Clash: East
Asian Security and the United States. New York, NY: Columbia University
Hayashi, H. 2015. The Japanese Military “Comfort Women” Issue and the San
Francisco System. In K. Hara (Ed.), The San Francisco System and Its
Legacies: Continuation, Transformation, and Historical Reconciliation in the
Asia-Pacific. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hein, L., & Selden, M. 2000. The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change.
In L. Hein and M. Selden (Ed.), Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory
in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Armonk, NY: An East Gate Book.
Heo, U., & Roehrig, T. 2014. South Korea’s Rise: Economic Development, Power
and Foreign Relations. UK, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hubbard, T. 2015. State of the Rebalance. In G. Rozman (Ed.), Asia’s Alliance
Triangle: U.S-Japan-South Korea Relations at a Tumultuous Time. New
York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hwang, K. M. 2016. Rationalizing Korea: The Rise of the Modern State, 1894-1945.
Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
Kaufman, Z.D. 2016. United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice:
Principles, Politics, and Pragmatics. New York, NY: Oxford University
Kim, P. K. 2011. Park Chung Hee Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kimura, M. 2016. Unfolding the ‘Comfort Women’ Debates: Modernity, Violence,
Women’s Voices. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Matake, K. 2000. Japanese Foreign Policy Toward Northeast Asia. In I. Takashi and
P. Jain (Ed.), Japanese Foreign Policy Today- A Reader (226-250). New
York, NY: Palgrave Publishers Ltd.
Naoko, K. 2016. The Comfort Women: Historical, Political, Legal, and Moral
Perspectives. Tokyo, Japan: International House of Japan.
Norma, C. 2016. The Japanese Comfort Women and Sexual Slavery During the China
and Pacific Wars. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Nozaki, Y. 2001. Feminism, Nationalism, and the Japanese Textbook Controversy
over “Comfort Women” In K.M. Blee and F.W. Twine (Ed.), Feminism and
Antiracism: International Struggles for Justice (170-192). New York, NY:
New York University Press.
Oh, B.B.C., & Stetz, M. 2001. The Japanese Imperial System and the Korean
“Comfort Women” of World War II. In B.B.C. Oh and M.D. Stetz (Ed.),
Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II (3-25). New York, NY:
Routledge. 153 Congressional Record., 4579-6130 (2007) Washington: United
States Government Printing Office.
Park, A. 1996. Racial Conflict and Healing: An Asian-American Theological
Perspective. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.
Park, C. H. 2015. Korea-Japan Relations under Deep Stress. In G. Rozman (Ed.),
Asia’s Alliance Triangle:US-Japan-South Korea Relations at a Tumultuous
Time (pp. 87-104). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Park, K. Who Controls the Korean Policy Making?: Digital Broadcasting Policy.
Morrisville, NC: LuLu Press.
Park, S. W. 1999. Colonial Industrialization and Labor in Korea: The Onoda Cement
Factory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Qiu, P., Su, Z., & Chen, L. 2014. Chinese Comfort Women: Testimonies from
Imperial Japan’s Sex Slaves. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Seth, M. J. 2016. A Concise History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present.
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Shao, M. 2007. Taiwan in Wartime. In S. R. MacKinnon, D. Lary, and E.F. Vogel
(Ed.), China at War: Regions of China, 1937-1945 (91-109). Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press.
Soh, C. S. 2007. The Korean “Comfort Women” Tragedy as Structural Violence. In
G. Shin, S. Park, and D. Yang (Ed.), Rethinking Historical Injustice and
Reconciliation in Northeast Asia (pp. 18-35). New York, NY: Routledge.
Soh, C. S. 2008. Sexual Violence in Postcolonial Memory in Korea and Japan.
Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Soh, C. S. 2011. The Korean “Comfort Women”: Movement for Redress. In
E. Beauchamp (Ed.), Japan’s Role in International Politics Since World War
II. New York: NY: Routledge.
Stetz, M.D. 2008. Representing “Comfort Women”: Activism Through Law and Art.
In T.D. Dickison and R. K. Schaeffer (Ed), Transformations: Feminist
Pathways to Global Change. New York, NY: Routledge.
Tadashi, K. 2008. The Cold War and Relations between Japan and Korea. In D. Hyun
(Ed.), The Historical Perceptions of Korea and Japan (pp. 279-303). Paju,Kyeonggi: Nanam Publishing House.
Tanaka, Y. 2002. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During
World War II and the U.S. Occupation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Totsuka, E. 2006. Could Systematic Sexual Violence against Women during War
Time Have Been Prevented? - Lessons from the Japanese Case of “Comfort
Women” In U. Dolgopol, J. Gardam (Ed.), The Challenge of Conflict:
International Law Responds (499-514). Netherlands: Martinus Nihoff
Tsai, H.C. 2006. Korean Forced Labor in Japan’s Wartime Empire. In P. H. Kratoska
(Ed.), Asian Labor in the Wartime Japanese Empire (95-128). Arts Link,
Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Tsukamoto, S. 2017. Beyond the Dichotomy of Prostitutes versus Sex Slaves:
Transnational Feminist Activism of Comfort Women in South Korea and
Japan. In C. Peniston-Bird, E. Vickers (Ed.), Gender and the Second World
War: The Lessons of War (185-199). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
United Nations Human Rights, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in the Context of
Transitional Justice (Geneva: United Nations Office of the High Commissioner
for Human Rights, 2014).
Yoichi, F. 2015. Something has been ‘lost’ from our Future. In F. Yoichi, and B.
Kushner (Ed.), Examining Japan’s Lost Decades (314-330). New York, NY:
Youn, M. S. 2008. Controversies Surrounding the Question of the Japanese Army’s
Comfort Stations and ‘Comfort Women.’ In D. Hyun (Ed.), The Historical
Perceptions of Korea and Japan (pp. 213-228). Paju, Kyeonggi: Nanam
Publishing House.
Yun, D. D. 2004. Dear Humanism. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Journal Articles
Akaha, T. 2008. The Nationalist Discourse in Contemporary Japan: The Role of
China and Korea in the Last Decade. Pacific Focus, vol.23, no.2: pp.156-188.
doi: 10.1111/j.1976-5118.2008.00009.x
Arakawa, M. 2013. A New Forum for Comfort Women: Fighting Japan in United States Federal Court. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice, vol.16,
no.1: pp.174-200. Retrieved from
Argibay, C. M. 2003. Sexual Slavery and the Comfort Women of World War II.
Berkeley Journal of International Law, vol.21, no.2: pp.375-389. Retrieved
Beal, T., Nozaki, Y., & Yang, J. 2001. Ghosts of the Past: The Japanese History
Textbook Controversy. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, vol.3, no.2:
Card, J. 2006. A Chronicle of Korea-Japan ‘Friendship.’ The Asia Pacific Journal,
vol.4, no.1: pp.1-9. Retrieved from
Dolgopol, U. 1995. Women’s Voices, Women’s Pain. Human Rights Quarterly,
vol.17, no.1: pp.127-154. Retrieved from
Dudden, A., & Mizoguchi, K. 2007. Abe’s Violent Denial: Japan’s Prime Minister
and the ‘Comfort Women.’ The Asia-Pacific Journal, vol.5, no.3: pp.1-5.
Retrieved from—Alexis-
Gardner-Feldman, L. 2010. German-Polish Reconciliation in Comparative
Perspective: Lessons for Japan? The Asia-Pacific Journal, vol.8, no.16: pp.1-
19. Retrieved from
Hayashi, H. 2013. Review of United Nations’ Policy for War Crimes Trials. Jairo,
no.55: pp.1-28. Retrieved from
Hein, P. 2010. Patterns of War Reconciliation in Japan and Germany. A Comparison.
East Asia, no.27: pp.145-164. DOI 10.1007/s12140-010-9106-z
Hein, P. 2016. Unresolved Comfort Women Issue: How Pragmatism Precludes
Reconciliation. The Korean Journal of International Studies, vol.14, no.3:
pp.447-460. Retrieved from
Hsu, Y. P. 1993. “Comfort Women” From Korea: Japan’s World War II Sex Slaves
and the Legitimacy of Their Claims for Reparations. Pacific Rim Law &
Policy Journal, vol.2, no.1: pp.97-129. Retrieved from
Jang, S. H. 2012. The Korean Wave and Its Implications for the Korea-China
Relationship. Journal of International and Area Studies. vol.19, no.2: pp.97-
Janowitz, M. 1946. German Reactions to Nazi Atrocities. American Journal of
Sociology, vol.52, no.2: pp.141-146. Retrieved from
Jonsson, G. 2015. Can the Japan-Korea Dispute on “Comfort Women” be Resolved?
Korea Observer, vol.46, no.3: pp.489-515. Retrieved from
Koo, M.G. 2011. Partisanship and South Korea’s Trade Policy: New Soul Searching
Between Neo-Developmentalism and Neo-Liberalism. 社會科學研究 : 東京
大学社会科学研究所紀要, vol.63, no.34: pp.39-53.
Lai, G. 2002. Comfort Women in Japan and Korea. Dalhousie Journal of Legal
Studies, no.11: pp.32-64. Retrieved from
Lee, S. 2002. The 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty with Japan and the Territorial
Disputes in East Asia. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal, vol.11, no.1: pp.63-
146. Retrieved from
Lee, S. J. 2011. The Korean Wave: The Seoul of Asia. The Elon Journal of
Undergraduate Research in Communications vol.2, no.1: pp.85-93.
Lee, S. R. 2014. Comforting the Comfort Women: Who can Make Japan Pay?
University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, vol.24, no.1:
pp.509-547. Retrieved from
Lee, N. Y. 2014. The Korean Women’s Movement of Japanese Military “Comfort
Women”: Navigating between Nationalism and Feminism. The Review of
Korean Studies, vol.17, no.1: pp.71-92. Retrieved from
Lin, S. G. 2016. Herstory: A Case for Using Japan’s Restitution Agreement with
Korea as a Model for Easing the Discomfort of Other Comfort Women. N.C.J.
Int’l L, no.42: pp.1-25. Retrieved from
Lind, J. 2009. The Perils of Apology: What Japan Shouldn’t Learn from Germany.
Foreign Affairs, vol.88, no.3: pp.132-146. Retrieved from http://sites.dart
Lupig, D. 2009. Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual and Gender Based Crimes
before the International Criminal Court. Journal of Gender, Social Policy &
the Law, vol.17, no.2: pp.431-496.
Retrieved from
Min, P. G. 2003. Korean “Comfort Women”: The Intersection of Colonial Power,
Gender, and Class. Gender and Society, vol.17, no.6: pp.938-957. Retrieved
Nozaki, Y., & Selden, M. 2009. Japanese Textbook Controversies, Nationalism, and
Historical Memory: Intra- and International Conflicts. The Asia-Pacific
Journal, vol.7, no.24: pp.1-33. Retrieved from
Orreill, K. 2008. Who are the Ianfu (Comfort Women)? New Voices, no.2: pp.128-
152. Retrieved from
Park, S. 2002. Broken Silence: Redressing the Mass Rape and Sexual Enslavement of
Asian Women by the Japanese Government in an Appropriate Forum. Asian-
Pacific Law & Policy Journal, vol.3, no.1: pp.23-55. Retrieved from
Pollmann, M. E. 2016a. The Politics of Visiting the Yasukuni Shrine: Explaining
Japanese Politicians’ Behaviors. Georgetown Journal of Asian Affairs, vol.2,
no.2: pp.123-152. Retrieved from
Pollmann, M. E. 2015a. The Politicization of the Liancourt Rocks Dispute and its
Effect on the Japan-South Korea Relationship. Pacific Forum CSIS,
vol.15, no.10: pp.1-21.
Postel-Vinay, K. 2017. The Global Rightist Turn, Nationalism and Japan. The Asia
Pacific Journal, vol.15, no.1: pp.1-18. Retrieved from
Ryu, Y. 2007. The Yasukuni Controversy: Divergent Perspectives from the Japanese
Political Elite. Asian Survey, vol.47, no.5: pp.705-726. Retrieved from
Sakamoto, R. 2001. The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s
Military Sexual Slavery: A Legal and Feminist Approach to the ‘Comfort
Women’ Issue. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, vol.3, no.1: pp.49-58.
Retrieved from
Saunders, P.C. 2014. China’s Rising Power, the U.S. Rebalance to Asia, and
Implications for U.S.-China Relations. Issues & Studies, vol.50, no.3: pp.19-
55. Retrieved from
Schott, J. J. 2015. An Assessment of the Korea-China Free Trade Agreement. Peterson
Institute for International Economics vol.15, no.24: pp.1-15.
Sellars, K. 2011. Imperfect Justice at Nuremberg and Tokyo. The European Journal
of International Law, vol.21, no.4: pp.1085-1102. Retrieved from
Selden, M. 2011. Small Islets, Enduring Conflict: Dokdo, Korea-Japan Colonial
Legacy and the United States. The Asia Pacific Studies, vol.9, no.17: pp.1-20.
Retrieved from
Sellers, P. V. 2011. Wartime Female Slavery: Enslavement? Cornell International
Law Journal, no.44. Retrieved from
Sneider, D. C., Sohn, Y., & Soeya, Y. 2016. U.S.-ROK-Japan Trilateralism: Building
Bridges and Strengthening Cooperation. The National Bureau of Asian
Research, no.59. Seattle, Washington: The National Bureau of Asian
Takashi, U. 2015. Labeled the Reporter who “Fabricated” the Comfort Woman Issue:
A Rebuttal 反論慰安婦問題「捏造記者」と呼ばれて. The Asia-Pacific
Journal. vol.13, no.2. Retrieved from
Tongsuthi, J. L. 1994. Comfort Women of World War II. UCLA Women’s Law
Journal, vol.4, no.2: pp.413-419.
Retrieved from
U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations, 2007.
Protecting the Human Rights of Comfort Women. Human Trafficking: Data
and Documents, no.27. Retrieved from
Yamashita, Y. 2009. Nationalism and Gender in the Comfort Women Issue. Kyoto
Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, vol.3, no.1: pp.208-219. Retrieved from
Yan, F. 2013. Nationalist Movements in Korea and Taiwan Under Japanese
Colonialism: Homogeneity and Diversity. Stanford Journal of East Asian
Affairs, vol.13, no.1: pp.100-107. Retrieved from
Yee, A. 2011. Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of
the South China Sea and the East China Sea. Journal of Current Chinese
Affairs, vol.40, no.2: pp.165-193. Retrieved from https://journals.sub.uni-ham
Yoon, B. S. L. 2010. Imperial Japan’s Comfort Women from Korea: History &
Politics of Silence-Breaking. The Journal of Northeast Asian History, vol.7,
no.1: pp.5-39. Retrieved from
Yoon, T.R. 2011. Historical Animosity is What States Make of It: The Role of
Morality and Realism in Korea-Japan Relations. The Korean Journal of
International Studies, vol.9, no.1: pp.1-37.
Retrieved from
Zhang, W. 2006. From Nuremberg to Tokyo: Some Reflections on the Tokyo Trial
(On the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Nuremberg Trials). Cardozo Law Review,
vol.27, no.4: pp.1673-1682. Retrieved from http://cardozolawre
Dissertations (Thesis)
Koh, J. 2007. Comfort Women: Human Rights of Women from Then to Present.
(Master dissertation). Retrieved from LLM Thesis and Essays. (Paper 79).
Nakayama, 2013. Japanese Activists who Support Redress for “Comfort Women”:
Why and How Do They Address the “Comfort Women” Issue? (Master
dissertation). Retrieved from
Park, E. 2011. The Trials of a Comfort Women. (Master dissertation). Retrieved from
Renner, L. 2006. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China:
Consequences for North Korea. (Master dissertation).
Retrieved from
Sedgwick, J. B. 2012. The Trial Within: Negotiating Justice at the International
Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1946-1948. (Master dissertation).
Retrieved from
Sikka, N. 2009. The Official Marginalization of Comfort Women.
(Master dissertation). Retrieved from
Online Sources
Bader, J.A., & Dollar. D. 2015. Why the TPP is the Linchpin of the Asia Rebalance.
Brookings. Retrieved from
Carpenter, T. G. 2015. The Island Dispute No One is Talking About. The National\
Interest. Retrieved from
Choe S. H. 2015. Japan and South Korea Agree WWII ‘Comfort Women’ Deal. BBC.
Retrieved from
Choe, S. H. 2016. ‘Comfort Woman’ Statue Reinstated Near Japan Consulate in
South Korea. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Choe, S. H., & Motoko, R. 2017. Japan Recalls Ambassador to South Korea to Protest
‘Comfort Woman’ Statue. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Comfort Women Statue in Busan, South Korea. 2017. Foreign Press Center Japan.
Retrieved from
Cortazzi, H. 2014. Does Right-Wing Extremism Threaten Japan’s Democracy? The
Japan Times. Retrieved from
Desai, A. N. 2015. Japan, South Korea Settle ‘Comfort Women’ Issue with ‘Heartfelt
Apology’ and 1 Billion Yen Compensation. Inquisitr. Retrieved from http://
heartfelt- apology-and-1-billion-yen-compensation/
Eddy, M. 2012. For 60th Year, Germany Honors Duty to Pay Holocaust Victims.
The New York Times. Retrieved from
Fackler, M. 2014. Conservative Group Urges Changes at Japanese War Shrine. The
New York Times. Retrieved from
Fifield, A. 2015a. Japanese Historians Contest Textbook’s Description of ‘Comfort
Women’ The Washington Post. Retrieved from
Fifield, A. 2015b. North Korea Threatens Action in South Korea over
Anti-Pyongyang Broadcasts. The Washington Post.
Retrieved from
Gattig, N. 2015. Forget Germany- Japan must deal with WWII its own way. The
Japan Times. Retrieved from
Graham- Harrison, E. 2017. Island on the Frontline of a New Global Flashpoint:
China v Japan. The Guardian. Retrieved from
Griffiths, J. 2017. South Korea’s New President Questions Japan ‘Comfort Women’
Deal. CNN. Retrieved from
Growth rate of Japanese Tourists Visiting S. Korea Rebounds in 2016. 2017. Yonhap
News. Retrieved from
Hallyu. 2017. Retrieved from
Halpin, D. 2016. Opening of Taipei Comfort Women Museum Reunites Korean
Victim with Former Taiwan President. The Hankyoreh. Retrieved from
Hanna, J., Hume, T., & Griffiths., J. 2015. North Korea Claims it has H-Bomb as
U.N. Discusses Human Rights Abuses. CNN. Retrieved from
Han, S., & Griffiths J. 2017. Why this Statue of a Young Girl Caused a Diplomatic
Incident. CNN. Retrieved from
Hatoyama Mourns Korean Independence Activists in Seoul. 2015. The Japan Times.
Retrieved from
Hwang, J. 2014. The ROK’s China Policy Under Park Geun Hye:
A New Model of ROK-PRC Relations. The Brookings. Retrieved from
Hyun, P. 2015. In Washington, Views on East Asia Tilting in Japan’s Favor. The Hankyoreh. Retrieved from
Johnson J., & Osumi, M. 2015. Fifty Japanese Scholars Attack McGraw-Hill, U.S.
Academics on ‘Comfort Women’ Issue. The Japan Times. Retrieved from
Kim, B. K. 2017. Despite Official Document of ‘Japanese Military’s Forced
Recruitment of Comfort Women,’ Japan’s Denial “No Direct Evidence”
YonHap News. Retrieved from
Kim, H. J. 2017. Definitions of ‘Comfort Women’ Reveal Japan-S. Korea Divide. AP
News. Retrieved from
Kim, J. C. 2016. Park’s Claims Defending Comfort Women Settlement Fail to
Convince. The Hankyoreh. Retrieved from
Kim, K. 2015. Cold, Hunger, Discrimination: Remembering the Korean Laborers
Conscripted by Japan. The Hankyoreh. Retrieved from
Kim, M. 2016. The U.S. the Big Winner in ‘Comfort Women’ Agreement.
EastAsiaForum. Retrieved from
Kim, S. 2015. 50 Years After Korea-Japan pact, Some Issues Won’t go away. Korea
JoongAng Daily.
Retrieved from
KMT rule over Taiwan 100 Times Worse than Japan’s: DPP’s Hsieh. 2007.
China Post. Retrieved from
Kwon, Y. 2014. Korea and China’s Clashing Histories. The Diplomat.
Retrieved from
Liu, Charles 2015. Chinese Tourists Are Loving South Korea. The NanFang.Retrieved from
Mathews, J. T. 2017. Washington Already Knows How to Deal with North Korea.
The Atlantic. Retrieved from
Many Praise Germany, Scorn Japan 70 Years After WWII. 2015. The Japan Times.
Retrieved from
tory/70-years-wwii-neighbor- states-hold-germany-high-heap-scorn-axis-allyjapan/#.
Minegishi, H. 2015. Park Seeks to Resolve Thorny Issue with soft Touch.
Nikkei: Asian Review. Retrieved from
Mitter, R. 2017. Can Japan Lay its ‘Comfort Women’ Ghosts to Rest? South China
Morning Post. Retrieved from
Mody, S. 2017. China Lashes out as South Korea puts an American Anti-Missile
System in Place. CNBC. Retrieved from
Morris-Suzuki, T. 2014. Japan and the Art of Un-Apologising. East Asia Forum.
Retrieved from
Noh, K. J. 2015. South Korea’s Betrayal of the “Comfort Women” Counter Punch.
Retrieved from
Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2017. North Korea. Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved
Panda, A. 2014. Survey: South Koreans Prefer Kim Jong-Un to Shinzo Abe.
The Diplomat. Retrieved from
Panda, A. 2017a. South Koreans Continue to Distrust Japan. How will the Upcoming Presidential Election Change That? The Diplomat. Retrieved from
Panda, A. 2017b. The ‘Final and Irreversible’ 2015 Japan-South Korea Comfort
Women Deal Unravels. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplo
Park, C. H. 2009. The Future of the Korea-Japan Strategic Relationship: A Case for
Cautious Optimism. Korea Economic Institute of America. Retrieved from
Park, S.H. 2017. Comfort Women Agreement Needs to be Disclosed …Japan’s
Apology is the Key to Resolve Issue. Yonhap News. Retrieved from
Pollack, J.D. 2016. Changes and Prospects for the Structure of Regional Stability in
East Asia: A U.S. Perspective. Brookings. Retrieved from
Pollmann, M. 2015b. Why Japan’s Textbook Controversy is Getting Worse.
The Diplomat. Retrieved from
Pollmann, M. 2016b. Will Taiwan’s ‘Comfort Women’ Get an Apology from Japan?
The Diplomat. Retrieved from
Real Meter. 2007. Japan’s Abe, Lower Public Rating than Koizumi. Real Meter.
Retrieved from日아베-고이즈미보다-더-
Real Meter. 2015. Japanese Military Sexual Slavery Agreement, Good 43.2% vs Bad
50.7%. Real Meter. Retrieved from일본군-위안부-합의-잘했다-43-2-vs-
Real Meter. 2016. South Korea-Japan Agreement, must be Denunciated. Real Meter.
Retrieved from한일-위안부-합의-
Rozman, G. 2016. Chinese Views of South Korean History. The Asan Forum.
Retrieved from
Scholars urge Abe to Renew ‘Comfort Women’ Apology. 2015. The Japan Times.
Retrieved from
Sevastopulo D., & Mundy, S. 2014. Park Under Pressure to Talk to Abe.
The Financial Times. Retrieved from
76% of People Polled in South Korea Oppose Removal of ‘Comfort Women’ Statue
in Seoul. 2016. The Japan Times. Retrieved from
S. Korea’s Trade with Japan down for 3 Straight Years in 2014. 2015. Yonhap News.
Retrieved from
Soble J., & Choe, S.H. 2015. South Korean and Japanese Leaders Feel Backlash from
‘Comfort Women’ Deal. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Song, S.D. n.d. Lawsuits Brought Against Japan by Former Korean “Comfort
Women” The Columbia Law School. Retrieved from
comfort-women-issue/legal-documents-and-lawsuits/lawsuits- broughtformer-
South Korean Court Orders Gov’t to Disclose Documents on Sexual Slavery
Agreement with Japan. 2017. Global Times. Retrieved from
Stanton, J. 2015. Is Kim Jong Un Preparing New Nuclear Tests? Satellite Images
Reveal Construction Work and New Tunnel at Site of North Korea’s Power
Programme. Retrieved from
Strategic Ambiguity Highlights Divergence on Japan-S. Korea ‘Comfort Women’
Deal. 2015. Global Times. Retrieved from
Statues Honoring Korean, Chinese ‘Comfort Women’ Erected in Seoul. 2015. Japan
Times. Retrieved from
Tabuchi, H. Japan’s Abe: No Proof of WWII Sex Slaves. 2007. Washington Post.
Retrieved from
Tiezzi, S. North Korea Nuclear Test Reveals the Limits of China-South Korea
Cooperation. 2016. The Diplomat. Retrieved from
UN Chief Praises S Korea, Japan for Settling ‘Comfort Women’ Row. 2015. AFP.
Retrieved from
UN Panel Calls on Japan and South Korea to Revise ‘Comfort Women’ Deal. 2017.
South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
U.S. Praises Korea, Japan for Reaching Breakthrough Deal on Wartime Sexual
Slavery. 2015. The Korea Herald. Retrieved from
Wi, T.W., & Chang, L.C. 2016. 1965 Korea-Japan Agreement Should be
Re-Estimated. Retrieved from
Wong, C. H. 2015. China Shows Skepticism on Japan’s ‘Comfort Women’ Apology.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
WSJ Archive: 50th Anniversary of Normalization of Japan- South Korea Ties. The Wall
Street Journal. Retrieved from
Wu, Yu-Shan. 2012. Hallyu: An Unstoppable Influence in Asia? Waltham Economy of
Asia Review.
Retrieved from
Yao, Yao. 2015. Last Chinese ‘Comfort Woman’ who Filed Suit Against Japan Dies.
China Daily. Retrieved from
Yoo, J. H. 2017. The ‘Irreversible’ Condition Inscribed by South Korea to Avoid
Reversing Japan’s Apology is the Fetters. JungAng Ilbo. Retrieved from http://
Yoshida, R., & Mie, A. 2017. Japan Recalls Envoys over New ‘Comfort Women’
Statue in Busan. The Japan Times. Retrieved from
Zhu, L. 2017. Japan Condemned for Interference’ with ‘Comfort Women’ Memorial
Lawsuit. China Daily. Retrieved from
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS) ] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat
601601.pdf1910KbAdobe PDF374View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing