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This Land is “Our” Land: A Study of Indigenous-State
|Issue Date:||2017-07-11 12:15:45 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||過去幾十年來，當地社區，科學家和政府官員不得不面對日益惡化的環境惡化以及對可持續發展和資源利用日益增長的需求。 近年來,為了解決日益增長的問題，土地和資源共同管理的概念越來越受歡迎。 共同管理通常被定義為⸢兩個以上的社會行為者之間談判，界定和保證公平分享給定領土，地區或一套自然資源的管理職能，權利和責任的情況⸥ (Borrini et al. 2000) 。 更具體地說，森林共同管理是指分享責任的領域和資源與森林有關的請況。 在理論上，森林共同管理的好處不僅應該是環境，而且應該是社會經濟。
在本論文中，我將對台灣的共同管理案例研究，十多年前成立的太魯閣國家公園合作管理委員會，以及另一個最近新出現的魯凱族和 台灣林業局。 為了提供台灣共同管理協議的示範框架，我還將討論加入加拿大國家公園管理的共同管理。 我將在台灣和加拿大的相關殖民時期追溯土著國家關係的歷史和演變，以更好地了解當前原住民族和國家共同管理工作的基礎。
本論文還將討論國際原住民族權利制度的出現在台灣制定本國原住民族政策方面發揮的作用。 我將了解原住民如何適應台灣國家公園和森林管理工作的政策和決策框架。 在評估原住民族與中央政府在這方面的權力關係的性質時，我的目的是回答以下問題：台灣當地原住民族如何與台灣政府達成共同管理協議？ 在分析歷史和國際背景，政策框架和每個案例的具體細節時，我將就台灣當局與原住民部落未來的共同管理工作提出建議。
Over the past several decades, local communities, scientists, and government officials have had to contend with increasing environmental degradation and the growing need for sustainable development and resource use. In more recent years, in order to address these rising concerns, the concept of co-management of land and resources has become increasingly popular. Co-management is commonly defined as “a situation in which two or more social actors negotiate, define, and guarantee amongst themselves a fair sharing of the management functions, entitlements and responsibilities for a given territory, area or set of natural resources” (Borrini et al. 2000). More specifically, forest co-management refers to situations in which the area and resources for which responsibility is being shared are forest-related. In theory, the benefits of forest co-management should not only be environmental, but socioeconomic as well.
In this thesis, I will conduct two case studies of co-management in Taiwan, the Taroko National Park co-management committee, which was established over a decade ago, and another more recently emerging case of co-management between Rukai indigenous peoples and the Taiwan Forestry Bureau. In order to provide a model framework for Taiwanese co-management agreements, I will also discuss co-management as it has been incorporated into Canadian national park management. I will trace the history and evolution of indigenous-state relations across the pertinent periods of colonization in both Taiwan and Canada to better understand the foundations upon which current indigenous-state co-management efforts have been constructed.
This thesis will also touch upon the role that the emergence of an international indigenous rights regime has played in shaping domestic indigenous policies in Taiwan. I will identify how indigenous peoples fit into the policy and decision-making frameworks of Taiwan’s national park and forest management efforts. In assessing the nature of power relations between indigenous peoples and the central government in this context, I aim to answer the following question: how do local Taiwanese indigenous peoples engage in co-management agreements with the state government of Taiwan? Upon analyzing the historical and international contexts, the policy frameworks, and the specific details of each case, I will posit suggestions for future co-management efforts between the Taiwanese state government and indigenous communities.
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