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Title: 社會信任與發展援助成效之關聯
Social trust and the impact of development aid
Authors: 蔡婷茹
Tsai, Ting Ju
Contributors: 蘇昱璇
Su, Yu Hsuan
Tsai, Ting Ju
Keywords: 現金補助
Cash transfers
In-Kind transfers
Social trust
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-08-10 10:02:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 現金補助與實物補助是對於發展中國家最普遍的援助方法,基於「信任」在國家經濟發展扮演之重要角色,本文使用世界銀行2008年至2010年於迦納進行之「迦納微型企業的成長和捕蠅紙效果之隨機實驗」計畫所收集之數據,在Fafchamps et al.(2014)的基礎上,納入信任關係方面的問卷答覆作為關鍵變數,透過最小平方法OLS,並以宗教多數、家庭規模作為工具變數進行兩階段最小平方法2SLS處理內生性問題,探討信任關係對於迦納微型企業的利潤之影響,並進一步分析當納入「信任」之影響後,迦納微型企業接受現金補助與實物補助之利潤差異。從以上多種迴歸分析之研究結果發現,加入信任關係後,基本上,接受實物補助的微型企業主仍然相較現金補助組與控制組有顯著較多的利潤,而現金補助對於利潤之效果較小甚至無顯著性,唯一例外是在進行普通最小平方法時,控制所有類型的信任之影響,發現現金補助對於利潤具有正面且顯著的效果,且利潤之效果(每月能增加15.599 GhC)相較原Fafchamps et al.(2014)利潤(每月能增加14.503 GhC)之效果大,縮小與實物補助之利潤之差異,因此本文推估「信任」與接受補助之利潤效果是有關連的。
Cash transfers and in-kind transfers are the most common methods of aid in developing countries. Because “trust” plays an important role in economic development, this research utilizes data collected from World Bank’s randomized experiment in Ghana: 2008-2010 “Microenterprise Growth and the Flypaper Effect”. This paper builds on the foundation of Fafchamps et al. (2014) and considers trust-related variables. I use the OLS method to explore the impact of trust relationships on Microenterprise’s profits in Ghana and the differences between firms receiving cash transfers and in-kind transfers. The two-stage least squares (2SLS) method using religious majority and household size as instrument variables is also implemented to avoid endogeneity issues. The findings show that after we consider the trust relationships, microenterprise owners who received in-kind transfers received statistically significant higher profits than the cash transfers group and the control group, and the treatment effects of the cash transfers become smaller or even insignificant. The only exception is that in OLS regression when all types of trust variables are controlled, the cash treatment has a positive and statistically significant effect on profits (will increase 15.599 GhC per month). This result is larger than the result in Fafchamps et al. (2014) (increase by 14.503 GhC per month), and the difference between cash and in-kind shrinks. Therefore, this paper considered that “trust” is related to the profit effects of receiving transfers.
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