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Title: 中國企業育成中心(科技企业孵化器)之研究
Technology Business Incubators in China
Authors: 蘇羚毓
Su, Ling-Yu
Contributors: 姜家雄
Chiang, Chia-Hsiung
Su, Ling-Yu
Keywords: 育成中心
Technology business incubators
Technology innovation
Business incubators financial support
Business incubators policy support
Role of business incubators
Role of government in incubators support
Shenzhen innovation
Wuhan East Lake High-tech Development Zone
Chinese economic transformation
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-08-10 10:16:19 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 創新及創業被認為是現代社會緩解經濟遲緩、促進經濟增長、引領自主創新的一帖良藥。在中國,以培育科技型中小型企業、促進區域經濟發展的「科技企業孵化器」被視為中國落實「大眾創業,萬眾創新」政策的載體,更被用以促進中國經濟穩定增長的重要舉措之一。本研究試圖透過相關重要文獻及次級數據,輔以極具代表性的深圳及武漢地區之孵化器為案例,再透過財務政策及法律改革等相關數據,系統性地分析科技企業孵化器在中國經濟成長下所扮演的角色,以及中國政府在引領並推進此一創新載體所發揮之作用。研究發現,中國科技企業孵化器可做為促進科技創新與經濟增長之媒介-催化劑,為新創企業匹配早期所需之資源(包含知識移轉、社區實體及關係網絡對接),直接與間接地促進區域經濟轉型升級,證明了科技企業孵化器有能力促進國家創新能力與經濟可持續增長,並成為推進中國經濟轉型的助力之一。同時,中國政府扮演主導推進孵化體系發展的政策指導者,通過一系列資源及政策支持,指導科技企業孵化器的發展路徑及進程,同時促進了政府職能的轉變。總結本研究結果,科技企業孵化器是中國創新體系的一部分,其與政府之間存在著不可分割的關係。政府對科技企業孵化器的支持參與度越大,科技企業孵化器與政府的相互依賴度就越大。作為中國創新和科技發展政策框架的重要組成部分,科技企業孵化器正推動經濟可持續增長並建立一個技術創業的生態系統,同時重塑政府、市場、社會之間的關係。本研究結果可提供未來相關研究探討科技企業孵化器的可持續發展之創新能力。在中國經濟新常態下,探就可持續性的科技企業孵化器有助於全面了解中國科技與經濟成長之關係,相關研究值得後續進一步分析實證。
Innovation and entrepreneurship are regarded as an economic tool to promote independent innovation and economic growth in the sluggish economy. In China, the Technology-based Business Incubators (BIs) focusing on promoting technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and regional development are viewed as the innovative carriers under the initiative of “Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”. This study attempts to systematically analyze the role of BIs in Chinese economic growth and the role of government play in advancing BIs development through the important literatures and secondary resources, complemented in part with incubation case studies in Wuhan and Shenzhen, and the implementing results of the financial policies and legal reforms. Findings demonstrate that Chinese BIs serves as the catalyst to accelerate S&T development and to provide matching service at technopreneurial functions on the resources of knowledge (high-tech research to patents), communities (high-tech SMEs, universities, and relevant entities), and networks (accessing government, investors, and entrepreneurs), which have promoted regional economic transformation. Meanwhile, the role of Chinese government plays a policy guidance in incubation system, while promoting the transformation of government functions. To conclude this research, BIs are part of the Chinese innovation systems. There is an inseparable relationship between Chinese BIs and the government. The greater the government involvement in BIs support, the greater the interdependence of the BIs and the government. BIs are one of the important factors to facilitate the self-reform of the government, remodeling relations among the government, market and society. In the background of China's “new normal”, the findings of this study provides a future direction to investigate the innovation capability of BIs sustainability. To understand the overall picture of China's rapid growth economic development, the innovation capability of BIs sustainability is worthy of further investigation and discussion.
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