Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/112239


Title: Heathcote專家衣缽典範及其教育美學意涵探究
A Study on Heathcote’s Paradigm of Mantle of the Expert and its Implication for the Educational Aesthetics
Authors: 鄭黛瓊
Cheng, Tai Chiung
Contributors: 馮朝霖
Fong, Tsao Lin
鄭黛瓊
Cheng, Tai Chiung
Keywords: 專家衣缽
學習劇
教育美學
Mantle of the expert
Drama for learning
Educational aesthetics
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-08-28 11:55:05 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 英國戲劇教育家Dorothy Heathcote在1970中葉發明了專家衣缽(Mantle of the Expert)教學策略,這是一種以社會角色為學習框架,整全系統性思考為基礎,引導學生認識世界,進而建構學生個人知識的方法,主張將戲劇視為學習模式發展出學習劇(drama for learning)。經過筆者由文獻的探究發現,過去對此方法的研究,多半專注在方法的功能性運作和效度的驗證上,卻缺乏的是以哲學的反思,去理解這個方法的背後成因。因此,本研究聚焦在這個基礎,以找出隱身在方法背後的思考與教育理念所產生的運作法則。為此,本研究方法採取溫和的詮釋學與默會致知理論,透過詮釋學的方法對蒐集的文獻進行理解、解釋與應用的檢證,以默會致知的理論與方法,向專家衣缽方法進行深究與開展。首先,本論文為Mantle of the Expert的中文譯名重新定義,在重啟文獻研究,修正過去譯名的模糊性,還原Heathcote命名的真實意義,將此名稱重譯為專家衣缽,強調其著重師徒傳承之意。據此,開展了專家衣缽教學模式的底層的運作系統-教育圖像、功能運作、支持的理論、教育美學(educational aesthetics)的定位。

在教育圖像的研究裡,本論文以師生互動模式為研究中心,建置了學生、教師的圖像,進而開顯出動態的師生互動模式,展現Heathcote的教育視野,視好的教學為動態而非靜態模式;在此教學法的功能運作的探究裡,發現Heathcote主張一種貼近人本來的學習模式-在社會中學習,故此,專家衣缽必定在教師引導和學生一起建置的社會狀態下進行致知;在方法的背後支持的理論體系裡,發現了五種理論支撐:Polanyi的默會理論與個人知識;Vygotsky的社會認知發展理論;Goffman的擬劇論、角色框架理論;Hall的文化理論裡的基礎訊息系統;Brecht的社會傾向的疏離劇場的形式與內容。承上述之研究,本論文發現了專家衣缽的真正目的在優質教育,而不只是戲劇藝術教育,Heathcote關注的是教育的普遍性,而非特殊性,因此,專家衣缽呈現出這樣的特質:一、「專家衣缽」典範是一種以創造來引導學習的教學模式;二、「專家衣缽」典範以「角色」(role)作為學習框架;三、專家衣缽典範定位於教育美學的範疇;四、以內容中心玩出能力。本研究企圖以這樣的深究,了解隱身此方法背後的複合式的內容與深層結構,讓專家衣缽這個教學典範成為可以理解與把握的方法,不再神秘。
Dorothy Heathcote, a British drama educationist, invented “Mantle of the Expert”, an instructional strategy, in the mid-1970s. This is a method based on holistic systematic thinking. It guides students to comprehend the world, and helps construct students’ personal knowledge. She saw drama as a learning model (drama for learning). From the author’s exploration into the literatures, it was found that previous researches focused mostly on the functional operation and verification of its validity of this method, and is lacking in the understanding for the origin of this method with philosophical reflections. Therefore, this dissertation focused on the basis of the method, and tried to find out the thinking behind it and the principles of operation stemmed from her ideas of education. Thus, the research adopted the theories of moderate hermeneutics and tacit knowing, tried to comprehend, explain and apply the literatures collected in a hermeneutic way, and furtherer explored and developed this strategy though the theory and method of tacit knowing. Firstly, the dissertation redefined the Chinese translation of “Mantle of the Expert”. Then it restarted researches on the literatures, resolved the ambiguity of previous translation, and restored the real meaning behind the name given by Heathcote. “Mantle of the Expert” is re-translated as “專家衣缽” to focus on its emphasis on the inheritance between teachers and students. As a result, the operative systems under “Mantle of the Expert”—education-picture, functional operations, supporting theories, and its position in educational aesthetics—were revealed.

In the aspect of education-picture, the dissertation took the interactions between teachers and students as the center for research, established the pictures of students and teachers, and revealed dynamic teacher-student interactions. Heathcote’s perspective on education, which sees good instruction as more dynamic than static, was revealed. In exploring the functional operations, it was found that Heathcote suggested a model that is close to the way men to learn—learning in the society. Therefore, in “Mantle of the Expert”, knowing must be acquired in a social situation constructed by students with guidance from the teacher. As to the supporting theoretical systems, five theories were found: Polanyi’s Tacit Theory and Personal Knowledge by Polanyi; Vygotsky’s theory of social cognitive development; Goffman’s Dramaturgical Theory and Role Distance Theory; Hall’s Primary Message Systems in his cultural theory; forms and contents from Brecht’s Theater of Estrangement. From researches mentioned above, the essay found that the real purpose of “Mantle of the Expert” is for quality education, rather than education of dramatic art. She focused on universality of education instead of particularity. Therefore, these qualities are shown in this strategy: First, the paradigm of “Mantle of the Expert” is an instructional model that guides learning through creation; Second, the paradigm of “Mantle of the Expert” uses “role” as the frame for learning; Third, the paradigm of “Mantle of the Expert” is positioned in the realm of aesthetics of education; Fourth, abilities are developed through content-centered playing. With this in-depth exploration, this dissertation tried to understand the complex contents and deep structures hidden behind this method, and made this instructional paradigm an understandable and applicable method that will no longer be mysterious.
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三、期刊
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五、西文期刊
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張錦弘(2015-03-26)。 芬蘭提出的「培養孩子7種橫向能力(莊蕙嘉編譯),聯合報。取自http://udn.com/news/story/6902/789326-%E8%8A%AC%E8%98%AD%E6%95%99%E6%94%B9-%E5%B0%87%E6%8E%A8%E8%B7%A8%E5%AD%B8%E7%A7%91%E4%B8%BB%E9%A1%8C%E6%95%99%E5%AD%B8https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lOx2XrqFZs。
張曉華(2000)。戲劇課程教學概論。「第三屆華文藝戲劇節台北2000學術研討會」發表論文,中華戲劇學會主辦。取自http://web.arte.gov.tw/art-edu-study/91drama-edu-seminar/07/txt-2/20020813-1.htm。
張曉華(2006)。新設的台灣與英美戲劇教育之發展與比較。取自http://teach.eje.edu.tw/resource/resource_SIG.php?GID=SIG00004。
蔡宗憲(2016)。張忠謀:知識綜合者將是新時代前10%的重要人才。取自http://news.cnyes.com/Content/20160701/20160701194341000440611.shtml。
馮朝霖(2009)。教育美學與美學領導。取自https://www.google.com.tw/webhp?ie=UTF-8&rct=j#q=%E3%80%8C%E6%95%99%E8%82%B2%E4%B9%83%E6%88%90%E4%BA%BA%E4%B9%8B%E7%BE%8E%E7%9A%84%E8%97%9D%E8%A1%93%E3%80%8D(%E9%A6%AE%E6%9C%9D%E9%9C%96%EF%BC%8C2009)。
Boland, G.(2013). Role and Role Distance: The Heathcote/ Carroll Collaboration that reframed the social context for drama-based learning and teaching. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14452294.2013.11649563.
Booth, D. (2012, April). Reconsidering Dorothy Heathcote’s Educational Legacy, Drama Research, Vol.3 No.1, National Drama. Retrieved from http://www.nationaldrama.org.uk/journal/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/Testimony.pdf .
Dictionary.com(2017). Retrieved from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mantle?s=t.
Heathcote, D.(2002). Contexts for Active Learning- Four models to forge links between schooling and society. Retrieved from http://www.moeplanning.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/dh-contexts-for-active-learning.pdf.
Hesten, S.(2011). Dorothy Heathcote Orbituary. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/nov/17/dorothy-heathcote.
Oxford Living Dictionaries(2017). Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/mantle.
The Free dictionary(2017). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mantle.

七、影片
Dorothy Heathcote教NYU學生專家衣缽方法的影片-Performance Workshop,主題:Becoming a Teacher - Employing Drama into the Classroom。取自http://int.search.tb.ask.com/search/video.jhtml?n=782b6939&p2=%5EBX2%5Expt816%5ES17547%5Etw&pg=video&pn=1&ptb=4BE108BD-67DE-45BC-907D-FB7D50BF18FB&qs=&searchfor=Dorothy+Heathcote&si=COiG86STmtACFYRjvAodVBoA7Q&ss=sub&st=sb&tpr=sbt。
Dir. Ronald Smedle (1971). Dorothy Heathcote: Three Looms Waiting BBC Omnibus,Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owKiUO99qrw .UK: BBC. (in Man in a Mess).
BBC North East(1981). Dorothy Heathcote: Blackley and Broadene - The Shoe Factory Part 1&2. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBzSYEY9eQs. UK:BBC. (in Mantle of the Expert)
Description: 博士
國立政治大學
教育學系
96152502
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0096152502
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[教育學系] 學位論文

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