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Title: 從公民到難民 : 緬甸羅興亞穆斯林離散之研究
From Citizen to Refugee : the Study of Burmese Rohingya Muslim Diaspora
Authors: 林靖諺
Lin, Ching Yen
Contributors: 林長寬
Lin, Chang Kuan
Lin, Ching Yen
Keywords: 羅興亞
Rohingya Muslim
Religious conflict
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2017-09-13 15:04:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 羅興亞穆斯林(Rohingya Muslim)或稱阿拉干穆斯林(Arakanese Muslim),是居住在鄰近孟加拉的緬甸若開邦北部 (或稱阿拉干Arakan)穆斯林社群,大批印度穆斯林在二十世紀初殖民時期遷徙至阿拉干地區,形成新(印度)、舊(阿拉干)穆斯林混居,也導致羅興亞人之身分多有爭議。
在宇努政府(U Nu)主政下,羅興亞人尚能以公民身份獲得參政權,而尼溫軍政府1978年發動清查非法入境者的龍王行動(Nagamin)及1982年實施新公民法後,羅興亞人公民權被徹底剝奪,並被迫在1978、1991-92、2012、2015及2016年間經歷數波難民離散,遷徙至孟加拉、馬來西亞及泰國等國。
「阿拉干羅興亞難民委員會」( RARC)是難民自身所建立的難民社群組織(RCOs),不僅為羅興亞社群發聲,亦與聯合國難民署(UNHCR) 及非政府組織(NGOs)等單位合作,發展其社群力量。而在馬來西亞政府默許及容忍下,羅興亞難民獲得安全棲身之所,除可透過通婚取得永久居留外,在開放羅興亞難民工作許可等政策開放下,羅興亞難民在地融合及生活發展。
Rohingya Muslim (or Arakanese Muslim) have been residing in Northen Rakhine (or Arakan) in Burma/Myanmarfor centuries , with the mass inflow of Indians during British Colonial Period into Burma, Muslim population grew up and it resulted in competition,then ethnic tension simmered between Indians and Burmeses.
The conflicts between Buddhist and Muslim bursted between 1930 and 1938 , and fail of integration of Arakan with East Pakistan (Bangladesh ) triggered Arakanese Muslim’s militant autonomy operation and the Arakanese Muslim created the “Rohingya” ethnic identity movement in the 1960s.
The cleaning of illegal immigrant operation “ Nagamin ” in1978 , implementation of new Citizen Law in 1982, and religious and ecthnic conflict had resulted Rohingya in exile in 1978 ,1991-2, 2013, 2015 and 2016 , therefore Rohingya migrated to Bangladesh , Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.
With the help of UNHCR and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) ,the Refugee Community Organizations(RCOs) such as Rohingya Arakanese Refugee Committee (RARC) not only play the role as intermediator between community and NGOs , but also lobbied the Malaysia government.
This dissertation focuses on the Burmese Rohingya communities in Ampang Malaysia and the origin of Rohingya, the ethnic and religious conflicts between Buddhists and Muslims , the Rohingya Diaspora and development of RCOs.
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