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Title: 從「民吾同胞」到「我四萬萬同胞之國民」:傳統到近代「同胞」符號意涵的變化
From "People Are My Siblings" to "My Four Hundred Million Siblings as Compatriots":The Changing Symbolic Meanings of "Tongbao" from the Past to the Present
Authors: 楊瑞松
Yang, Jui-Sung
Keywords: 民吾同胞;同胞;梁啟超;明治日本
People Are My Siblings;Compatriot;Liang Qichao;Meiji Japan
Date: 2016-05
Issue Date: 2017-10-31 14:49:50 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「同胞」語彙在近現代中國國族意識的流行程度無疑已達到如同Michael Billing所形容的Banal Nationalism(平庸,平淡/日常生活的國族主義)現象。但是「同胞」一詞成為近現代中國國族論述中的重要符號的歷史過程,並不是一個由中國傳統自然演變到近現代的現象,也不是一個純然近代中國思想文化界自身發展的結果。本文仔細分析下列三項課題:(1)、張載《西銘》的「民吾同胞,物吾與也」的意旨和歷史意義,(2)、現代意涵的「同胞」在明治日本時期的流行現象,(3)、「同胞」如何進入晚清中國語境,並成為國族論述想像之要角。本文將論證宋代張載的「民吾同胞,物吾與也」,其實和「同胞」作為具有現代國民意涵的符號之興起,並沒有直接明確的關連性。在晚清以前,「民胞物與」之說的重心,始終在於強調居於上位者要有仁民愛物的美德,而非是要以「同胞」符號來形塑論說超越家族關係的共同體想像。另一方面,作為具有現代意義的「同胞」符號最早浮現的歷史舞台,並非是晚清中國,而是明治日本。最晚在1870年代末,「同胞」已是日本國族想像共同體的符號,並且歷經民權運動、國粹主義和國體論等各種論述加以運用推廣,因而深入人心。在19世紀末,此一「同胞」符號經由梁啟超引介,成為另一個重要「日語借詞」進入中國的語境,不久之後,進而成為中國種族國族主義論述的要角。這一段發生於19世紀下半葉,在明治日本和晚清中國接續發生的「召喚國族,發現『同胞』」的歷史,很遺憾地,迄今為止並未受到學界嚴密的檢視,尤其是兩國之間「同胞」符號的關連性,也沒有得到清楚的分析和探討。本研究將填補此研究空白,同時反思這個影響深遠的國族符號的歷史意義和其所引發之情緒效應。
The popularity of "tongbao" (sibling) undoubtedly has become an important part of "banal nationalism" as defined by Michael Billing in modem China. However, this phenomenon does not originate from the Chinese intellectual tradition. Neither is it a product of modem Chinese intellectual and cultural development. In my study, I have focused on the following three issues: (1) the original meaning and its implication of Zhang Zai's famous statement "People are my siblings." (2) the popularity of the new modern meaning of "tongbao" as compatriot in Meiji Japan; and (3) how the new meaning of "tongbao" was introduced into China and became a key component in national discourse and imagination. I will argue that there is no direct connection between Zhang Zai's statement and the modem sense of "tongbao." In the past, Zhang's statement was mostly invoked as a moral instruction for the superiors to show their virtues by treating the people well. In fact, the pioneering use of "tongbao" as compatriot in modem sense took place in Meiji Japan, where the term was widely used in the discourses of civil right movements and nationalism as well. In the end of the 19th century, Liang Qichao introduced this term with the new meaning into the Chinese intellectual and cultural discourses. As a result, the term has since then played an important role in the construction of modem Chinese nationalism. Unfortunately, this important trans-lingual and transcultural development has by far not been critically examined. My study will not only shed new light on this development but also explore its important historical and emotional implications.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 45, 109-164
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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