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Title: 清代的旗人督撫
Bannermen Governors in the Qing Dynasty
Authors: 劉世珣
Liu, Shih-Hsun
Keywords: 清代旗人督撫;清承明制;督撫制度;文武互轉;旗漢督撫員額
Bannermen Governors of qing Dynasty;qing's inheritance of Ming system;Governors System;Civil-Military Transfer;Number of Governors Personnel between Bannermen and Han Chinese
Date: 2016-11
Issue Date: 2017-10-31 14:50:23 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文旨在透過量化的方式,呈現旗人在督撫員額之消長、進入督撫體系之途徑以及任職督撫後之轉任等三方面的趨勢與特色,並進一步探討滿洲皇帝對督撫制度的操作與運用。滿洲人以外來政權之姿入主中國,為了鞏固政權並有效治理,滿洲皇帝採借明制,建立起以總督、巡撫為首的地方行政制度。然而,採行漢人督撫制度的同時,要如何維持統治的穩定?旗人從中扮演重要關鍵角色。督撫的任用隨滿洲皇帝的統治心態、用人政策以及地域性差異而有所調整。在此過程中,旗人為滿洲皇帝手上的活棋,依統治上的需要被放在皇帝認為最適宜的位置。透過對督撫的任命,統治者靈活操作、運用督撫制度。督撫為滿洲皇帝在地方上的代理人,對統治者而言,最理想的狀況即為任用八旗滿洲擔任自己在地方的分身,治理與監督地方。而且,邊防重地、旗民雜處之處的督撫職務,也非旗人莫屬。然而,為局勢所迫,為了維持統治的穩定,滿洲政權必須與在地結合,滿洲皇帝不得不有時委以漢軍,有時又委以漢人督撫重任,藉此穩固中央與地方的關係。過去的研究往往視「清承明制」為清朝統治成功的關鍵所在,但透過本文的討論可知,問題似乎不是如此簡單。在「清承明制」的背後,旗人的參與,以及滿洲皇帝隨時間、地區而調整的統治心態與用人政策,實係沿襲明朝而來之制度能否在清朝被長時間妥善運用的關鍵所在。
This paper aimed to study trends and features of qing dynasty, such the number of the Bannermen ( qiren, 旗人) as Governors, the path of promotion to be Governors and the promotion after their Governors' term, through quantization method. And this paper will discuss how the rulers of Qing dynasty to manipulate the Governor system. Manchu rulers have taken the political system of Ming dynasty, such as the Civil Administration system which was led by Governor-General and Governor, because Manchus are ruling China as a regime with external originate, thus they have to seek a way to stabilize and promote their governance. Yet, how did they maintain their stabilized ruling while adopt Han Chinese's Governor System? It's all about the Bannermen plays the crucial part. Commission of Governors is subjected to change based on the ruling mentality, personnel policies and the difference of regions. In such process, the Bannermen have become maneuverable part of the Manchu Ruler to meet his need. Ruler is able to maneuver and take advantage of the Governor System by the Commission of Governors. Governors are the agent of the Emperor in local area, and it does meet the need of Rulers to have the Bannermen as his representative to rule and supervise his country. We can also note that Governors of strategic area and key population area are exclusively to the Bannermen. Yet, in order to stabilize his rule, Manchu regime have to subject to cooperate with local forces, by assigning key position to Han Bannermen or Han Chinese. Past researches have taken Qing's inheritance of Ming system as the key of success of Qing's ruling, but this paper revealed it wasn't so simple. Behind the inheritance, the participation of the Bannermen, the mentality and personnel policy of Manchu ruler are the key of success of this system.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 46, 1-56
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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