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Title: 從理學修為面向論朱熹的《楚辭集注》
On Zhu Xi's Chuci jizhu in terms of Lixue and Self-Cultivation
Authors: 陳志信
Chen, Chih-Hsin
Keywords: 楚辭;楚辭集注;朱熹;謝良佐;晁補之
Chuci;Chuci jizhu;Zhu Xi;Xie Liangzuo;Chao Buzhi
Date: 2015-12
Issue Date: 2017-11-01 11:45:37 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 針對朱熹(1130-1200)的《楚辭》論著,也就是《楚辭集注》、《楚辭辯證》和《楚辭後語》三者,當代學圈多從文藝角度進行討論。此舉導致朱子論說騷賦每每秉持的理學準的,遂被判定為圈限住他的成績。然本文認為,為了妥當評述朱子解讀、編纂楚騷的用心和用功,從理學家律己處世的面向展開研究,恐怕是在所必行的。首先我們要指出,朱子注騷是要打造一本導讀範本,用以引領後進吟誦騷文、涵養心性。此乃朱門教法特有的體道、明道路數。承此觀察,朱熹論說《楚辭》的方法和特色遂清楚明白:其一,一本程門高足謝良佐(1050-1103)揭示的遵循六義來諷詠詩文、興發心性的讀《詩經》法門,延續自家《詩集傳》的解詩技術及格式,朱子於《楚辭》章句間戮力標誌風、雅、頌、賦、比、興,細膩引導讀者體味流動屈賦字句裡的忠君眷戀情志。其二,在編纂歷代騷賦該事上,朱子援用晁補之(1053-1110)《續楚辭》、《變離騷》由「經」而「傳」、由「正」而「變」的纂輯架構;依該體例,楚騷作品被朱子視為是〈風〉、〈雅〉之「變」,這便使得自屈原(西元前?342-278)以降的騷人墨客於紓憂洩憤之際,能否如《三百篇》諸多作者(或詩中的主人翁)般得止乎禮義、回歸中庸,便成為他評介作品再三致意的重點。換言之,朱子在引領讀者共鳴古今騷人的幽怨愁緒後,終將歸本士子處世應物應把持的中和修為。總之,朱熹的《楚辭》論著表現出一種藉品味詩文來啟迪心性的修道路子。於此法門,文藝賞析與心性涵養相輔相濟,此乃理學傳統的建樹,也是中國文學傳統特有的發明。
Zhu Xi (1130-1200) commentates, compiles Chuci, and accomplishes its related works: Chuci jizhu, Chuci bianzheng and Chuci houyu. When critiquing these works, contemporary scholars often focus on their literary aspects and values. This approach leads to an assumption that Zhu Xi's philosophy, Lixue (Learning of Priniple), the principle Zu Xi abides by while studying ci and fu, limits his literay achievement. However, this paper aims to examine how it is reasonable for Zu Xi as an essential Confucian scholar noted for Lixue study to annotate and compile Chuci in terms of self-discipline, which Lixue scholars do their best to pursue. In this way, it is possible for Zhu Xi to turn his Chuci collections into a model of guidebook, instructing the later students to cultivate their characters and spiritual lives when studying Chuci. The methods and features Zhu Xi adopts to analyze Chuci thus become clear to us. First, based on the commentating methods used in Shi jizhuan, Zhu Xi's commentaries on Shijing, he continues the same methodological approach and form of analysis. It is an approach first developed by Xie Liangzuo (1050-1103), that all who would like to cultivate their characters when reading the poems in Shijing should follow Liuyi. Zhu Xi here again endeavors to celebrate the significance of Liuyi: Feng, Ya, Song (folksong, diplomatic parlance, religious oration), Fu, Bi, Xing (narration, metaphor, suggestion) within every sentence and chapter in Chuci. Zhu thus delicately leads the reader to appreciate the loyalty of Xhu Yuan (?342-278 B.C.) as well as his every word of passion. Second, when compiling all Chuci related works throughout the history, Zhu Xi adopts the structure of Xu Chuci and Bian Lisao by Chao Buzhi (1053-1110)-a change of form from Jing (the original canon) to Zhuan (narration of the canon), as well as from Zheng (poems) to Bian (allegoric poems)-according to which Zhu Xi defines Chuci as Bian (variation) of Feng and Ya. In consequence, Zhu Xi in commenting on these texts pays special attention to that whether Chu Yuan and later wrtiers can subdue one's self and return to propriety like the writers (or protagonists) of Shijing when expressing their emotions. In other words, Zhu Xi tends to guide readers, even if in dark and gloomy moods as those poets, to hold on to propriety, the key to self-cultivation, a quality supposedly possessed by every Confucian scholar. In general, Zhu Xi's Chuci related works indicate a way to delight the heart and enlighten the mind with poetry and thus reach self-possession. With Zhu Xi's methods, art appreciation and self-cultivation can well reinforce each other. This is the legacy of Lixue tradition as well a unique innovation in conventional Chinese Literature.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 24,197-251
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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