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Title: 從超世絕群到入世隨俗:論祝允明〈大游賦〉中大人形象的衍異
From Aloofness to Following Folk Customs: A Study Investigating the Changes in the Image of Great Man in "Da Yo Fu" of Yun-ming Zhu
Authors: 王欣慧
Wang, Hsin-Hui
Keywords: 祝允明;大游賦;大人賦;大人先生傳;大人形象
Yun-ming Zhu;Da Yu Fu;Da Ren Xian Sheng Zhuan;Image of great man
Date: 2016-06
Issue Date: 2017-11-01 14:35:04 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 清代陳元龍《歷代賦彙》曠達類賦篇中,收錄有明代吳中狂士祝允明〈大游賦〉一文。此類賦篇以司馬相如〈大人賦〉為首,可見〈大游賦〉當與〈大人賦〉有著相近似的寫作基調,即「登昇求仙」。然而,細讀文本,在近兩萬字的〈大游賦〉中,除了保有大人遠遊的敘事結構及士不遇的精神情懷之外,又以大規模的篇幅議論時政,明顯呈現出儒家濟世色彩,與漢魏以來大人書寫中所流露的道家精神不同。本文即以司馬相如〈大人賦〉與阮籍〈大人先生傳〉為參照點,仔細梳理出祝氏筆下的「大人」,既吸納了漢魏時期「大人」的書寫程式,卻又在時移世變的脈動下,展演出不同於以往的獨特存在。明乎此,則再進一步從文化研究的視角,探討祝氏筆下的「大人」何以不能追隨漢魏時期的「大人」與道化合?關於此,本文主要從明代文人的生存場域加以詮解,包括明代特殊的選舉人才方式對文人入仕的影響,以及明中葉以後的社會經濟對文人隱逸的限制,以從中辨明〈大游賦〉中大人形象衍異的原因。
The category of open-minded Fu in "Li Tai Fu Hui" of Yuan-long Chen in the Qing Dynasty collected "Da Yo Fu" of unconventional scholar, Yun-ming Zhu, in Wuzhong in the Ming Dynasty. In this category of Fu, the most representative Fu is "Da Ren Fu" of Xiang-ru Sima. Apparently, "Da Yo Fu" shares similar writing tone with "Da Ren Fu," namely, "to become a deity." However, according to the scrutiny of the texts, "Da Yo Fu," which consists of nearly 20,000 words, not only retains the narrative structure of trips of great man and the spirit of under-appreciation of scholars, but also discusses about political situation at the time from a wide range of perspectives. It reflects the significant spirit of saving the world of Confucianism, which is different from the spirt of Taoism reflected in writing about great man after Han and Wei Dynasties. Based on "Da Ren Fu" of Xiang-ru Sima and "Da Ren Xian Sheng Zhuan" of Ruan Ji, this study carefully summarized the "great man" in the writing of Zhu. This study found that Zhu's writing about great man reflects the writing style of "great man" in the Han and Wei Dynasties, as well as displays unique existence under the change of time which is different from that in the past. Therefore, this study further investigated the reason why "great man" in Zhu's writing did not follow that in the Han and Wei Dynasties from the perspective of cultural research. This study mainly interpreted the living field of literati in the Ming Dynasty, including the influence of unique imperial examination in the Ming Dynasty on literati's civil service, as well as restrictions on aloofness of literati imposed by social economy after the mid-Ming Dynasty, in order to clarify the cause of change in the image of great man in "Da Yu Fu."
Relation: 政大中文學報, 25,191-221
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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