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Title: 政治市場開放與地方派系的瓦解
The Openness of Political Market and the Breakdown of Local Factions
Authors: 王金壽
Wang, Chin-Shou
Keywords: 地方派系;政治市場;國民黨;單記非讓渡投票制;選舉制度
political market;local factions;KMT;electoral institutions;SNTV
Date: 2007-11
Issue Date: 2017-11-02 17:00:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 近年來台灣地方派系的發展情況是,過去金字塔型的組織結構幾乎瓦解殆盡。本文將嘗試從政治市場開放(新政黨出現及選舉席次增加)的觀點,來解釋台灣地方派系瓦解之現象,並以Gary Cox(1996)關於SNTV的研究來討論台灣的個案。本文要指出在戒嚴時期地方派系主要的選舉競爭場域是省議員和縣市長選舉,雖然SNTV使國民黨產生如何統合協調(coordinate)同黨候選人競選的問題,但此問題並未發生於地方派系身上,因為地方派系經常只有一位省議員候選人,即使部分縣級派系曾推出兩位以上候選人,也因選舉競爭性有限,而減低甚至是消除了SNTV的統合協調問題,但新政黨的出現卻使選舉競爭性大幅提高。國會全面改選和凍省雖使立法委員席次大量增加,替地方派系帶來爭奪國家資源的新機會,但地方派系在新的政治市場之下,經常有兩名以上的候選人,也因此產生統合協調的問題。此外,地方派系幾乎無法找到一個有效的回應策略來面對新的動員難題。所以席次的增加造成地方派系內部選舉競爭,因而導致地方派系的瓦解。
During the authoritarian period, the typical organizational structure of clientelism was the pyramid shape. It provided several advantages for the clientelist elites and the KMT. The limited openness of electoral politics helped maintain the pyramid-shaped organizational structure of clientelism. The structure of broker organizations is one of the main factors shaping the mobilization capacity of clientelism. The better the brokerage organizational structure, the easier it is for patrons to mobilize brokers and clients. The more fragmented the brokerage organizational structure is, the more difficult it is for patrons to integrate them. Fully competitive electoral politics increases the competition among clientelist elites. The competition speeds the trend toward fragmentation of brokerage organizations. During the authoritarian period, local factions rarely supported more than one candidate at the same time in elections. Therefore, local factions did not face the coordination problems they would later face under the SNTV system. The KMT did encounter these coordination problems. On one hand, it used local factions to differentiate candidates. On the other hand, a certain amount of hard-core supporters helped the KMT divide votes optimally among its candidates. Fully competitive electoral politics gave clientelist elites an opportunity to access the state resources, which were no longer limited to the local level. However, under the Taiwanese specific electoral institution, Single Nontransferable Vote (SNTV) system, the new competitive politics not only increased inter-factional conflicts within the KMT, but also intra-factional conflicts. These intra-factional conflicts precipitated the breakdown of the factional organizational structure.
Relation: 選舉研究 , 14(2) , 25-51
Data Type: article
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