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Title: 「以其能觀也」迄於「文化託命之人」——論王國維的悲劇洞見
From Literary Aestheticism to Cultural ethics: On Tragic insight of Wang Guo-wei
Authors: 曾守仁
Tseng, Shou-jen
Keywords: 王國維;悲劇;視覺現代性
Wang Guo-wei, tragedy, visual modernity
Date: 2017-12
Issue Date: 2018-02-06 16:30:03 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文主要從「悲劇」著眼,以此重估1911年以前王國維的文學理論與批評,探析其中的變與不變。「憂生、憂世」,對世界有如是先在悲劇的認識,那是身處世變之際王國維的切身感受,也成為他由此超越末世的反思之道,而他對傳統文學於是有了具哲理悲劇的「隻眼」創造。他在1911年以前的文學活動儘管型態互異,但悲劇「之眼」貫穿了小說、詩詞與劇本批評,本文詳細討論了其中的旨趣與挪移。從抉發《紅樓夢》的解脫精神,而至《人間詞話》裡因醒與痛之交嬗不息而頓生崇高之感,再迄於《宋元戲曲史》中對悲劇人物行動倫理道德價值之張揚,在在都顯現了他因應現代、重塑中體的努力,悲劇之眼打開新的文學批評境界。然而,這種美學直觀原也要通向倫理價值,也因此讓他意識到對個人小乘式的解脫不能滿意,加之又無宗教終極信仰,第一期哲理探索遂無能為繼;轉向填詞之後,卻意外在詞話批評的斷簡裡,以文字的跳躍、近乎詩語的引譬聯想,打開新的中西混融藝術境界。然而文學境界終究不能成為實際生活的等值之物,只能是在象徵層面上肯定了苦難的意義與價值,於是他又只能「遁而作他體」,進而以先行者之姿進入全新的劇曲研究,而終於抉發出、成就了中國的悲劇,可謂「隻眼」。
This essay re-evaluates the literary aestheticism and cultural ethics of Wang Guo-wei before 1911 in terms of his tragic vision. Living through the end stage of the Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, Wang Guo-wei’s outlook on life is regarded as tragic. But he seeks for transcendence against the turbulent social changes through re-reading traditional literature, and thus creates his own insight on tragedy. Wang performs many literary activities before 1911, which include commentaries on novels, poetry and Chinese opera scripts. The arguments and progression of his works will be fully discussed in this article.  Wang sees the spirits of liberation in Dream of Red Mansions, points out the sublime created by conscious pain and suffering in Commentary on Songs of Ren-Jian, and finally in Opera history of Song and Yuan dynasty he celebrates the ethical values inherent in the tragic figures in action. As a result of his aesthetic response to modern age, his tragic insight opens a new realm of literary criticism. However, the aesthetic and philosophical exploration will be left unsustainable and his personal liberation unsatisfied if without the help of ethical or religious beliefs. Wang then turns to lyrics writing, the elliptical text and poetic metaphor leading to a new artistic realm of merging the East and the West in Commentary on Songs of Ren-Jian. As literature is after all not the equivalent of life, he seeks for resolution and makes another move from lyrics to Chinese opera studies, of which Wang as a pioneer proves his visual modernity and completes the development of his “tragic insight.” The trajectory from literary aestheticism to tragic ethics throughout the three phases of development also fashions him as an intelligentsia who brings to life the “three cardinal guides and the six disciplines” of the ancient China.
Relation: 政大中文學報,28,281-328
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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