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Looking back to look forward, blooming life in second thought: Relationships among rumination, future time perspective, and forgiveness
Chen, Yu Hua
Yu, Min Ning
Chen, Yu Hua
Future time perspective
Forgiveness is a kind of cross-cultural universal virtue of human, positive psychological strength, and authentic wisdom of life. Forgiveness has become an important topic of psychological researches in last decades, due to the benefits of interpersonal harmony, well-being, physical and mental health. The study aimed to investigate the current condition of the adults in Taiwan of their rumination, future time perspective, and dispositional forgiveness, and furthermore addressed the relationships among these variables.
The present study adopted the questionnaire investigation, comprising “Multidimensional Focused Rumination Scale”, “Attitude toward Future Time Scale”, and “Dispositional Forgiveness Scale” was conducted. Participants were 1,413 adults aged 20 and over in Taiwan. The effective data based on the questionnaire were then analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, MANOVA, discriminant analysis, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping. The findings were summarized as follows:
1.The present condition of Taiwan aged 20 and over adults’ rumination, future time perspective, and dispositional forgiveness was generally fine.
2.In terms of rumination, gender and age had a significant difference in overall rumination and its dimensions.
I.The female participants had higher “emotion-focused rumination” and “meaning-focused rumination” scores than the male participants.
II.The elder participants reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups.
3.In terms of future time perspective, age, educational level, marital status and religion had a significant difference in overall future time perspective and its dimensions, while gender had no significant difference.
I.There is no difference between younger and elder participants on “the perception of future time”, however, the elder participants reported higher “the valence of future goal” and “preparation and action for the future” than younger participants.
II.The elder, high educated, married and religious believer, had better future time perspective.
4.In terms of dispositional forgiveness, gender, age, educational level, marital status and religion had a significant difference in overall dispositional forgiveness and its dimensions.
I.The male participants had higher “forgiveness of fate” scores than the female participants.
II.The male, elder, high educated, married and religious believer had a strong tendency to forgive.
5.In terms of different kind of rumination relate to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness: Emotion-focused rumination and evaluation-focused rumination were negatively related to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness, while meaning-focused rumination was positively related to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness.
6.Future time perspective mediated the relationship between the rumination and the forgiveness. Furthermore, future time perspective partly mediated the relationship between the emotion-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness, partly mediated the relationship between the evaluation-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness, and completely mediated the relationship between the meaning-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness.
According to the above findings, this study proposes suggestions for forgiveness education, counseling and guidance, and future studies.
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