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Title: 傳授與教材:《清靈真人裴君傳》中的五靈法
Teaching and Curriculum: The Method for Five Numina in the "Hagiography of Lord Pei, Perfected Being of Pure Numen"
Authors: 張超然
Chang, Chaojan
Keywords: 道教;上清經派;內傳;五靈;五星;裴君傳
Daoism;Shangqing school;Shangqing hagiographies;method for five numina;five planets;Hagiography of Lord Pei
Date: 2013-05
Issue Date: 2018-03-16 14:07:51 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 中古時期形成於江南的上清傳記不只記述道教聖徒的修行歷程,更附錄了傳主所受習的初階修法。這樣的內容使得上清傳記向來被視作指導修行的指南,同時也是教師用以從事歷史教育與傳授修法的教材。如此流行在教團內部的教材因為代代師徒相承而累積了不同時期的教訣。相較於過去多將上清經傳視作整全文本,其中文脈連續而統一。本文乃以《清靈真人裴君傳》中的五靈法作為例子,說明在同一部作品中可能存在新舊不同的文本層。這些並置在同一作品中的文本層所反映的,既是中古時期不同世代的道士以口訣方式表達其對舊訣的見解,同時又呈顯他們因為尊重師訣而不敢任意改動其原本位置與內容的現象。可以說,這類作品部分反映了中古時期江南道士的師徒傳承活動。我們得以從中了解不同世代的讀者或實踐者,他們如何為了適應新的宗教環境與需求、面對新的挑戰與概念,而對過去的教訣提出調整與修訂。
Shangqing hagiographies were lengthy texts that developed in the southeast areas of early medieval China. Not only did these texts recorded stories about the bodily cultivation of Daoist saints, but also the teachings designed for Daoist practitioners in the initial stages of their studies. Given their pedagogical value, the content of these texts has been studied as both manuals for advanced practitioners, as well as teaching materials by which masters taught Daoist history and practices. An interesting feature about these hagiographies is that they contained instructions based on the transmission of knowledge from masters to apprentices of various eras. This research analyzes a visualization method in which adepts meditated on the five numina as described in the Hagiography of Lord Pei, Perfected of Pure Numen as the example to explicate the possibility of coexistence of various textual layers featuring new and old teachings in one work. The textual layers not only reflected the understanding of the old teachings through interpretation on the part of the Daoist priests during different generations in medieval China, but also demonstrated that the ongoing generations of writers and rewriters of this text did not modify previous teachings, but rather preserved the instructions detailed by past masters. In other words, Shangqing hagiographies reflected the apprenticeship of the Daoist priests in the southeast regions of medieval China. In addition, we can acquire how readers and users of these techniques amended older teachings in order to adapt to new Daoist spatial configurations, and in so doing offered alternatives to cope with new challenges and concepts.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 1, 109-134
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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