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Title: Historical Narrative and Self Defense - Discrimination and Implication of the Rebellious Retainer- Zhang Jin-Yan's Advance and Retreat Decision Under the Regime Change
Authors: 王學玲
Wang, Hsueh-ling
Keywords: 歷史敘述;自我詮辯;明清易代;貳臣;張縉彥
historical narrative;self-defense;rebellious retainer;Zhang Jin-Yan
Date: 2017-06
Issue Date: 2018-03-30 16:38:29 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 明清易鼎,天崩地坼,士人殉死不降多令人動容,反之,貳臣進退失據經常受到非議。本文所論之張縉彥(1599-1670),以明季朝臣身分迎降李自成,繼之投效南明福王,終而歸順大清。弘光朝列張縉彥入「從逆諸臣」的第一等罪,《清史列傳》評之為貳臣,張縉彥則在詩文中,反覆剖明心志,形成歷史敘述與自我詮辯的極大歧異。張氏在易鼎之際的曲折出處經歷,與不斷詮辯自我的現象,說明清初貳臣群體同中有異,其中由弘光朝議處的「從逆諸臣」,就是特殊的一群。本文集中論述張縉彦在甲申都城破日與逃離北京後的遭遇、作為,重讀清初史冊、筆記與張縉彦的詩文奏疏,仔細比對二者敘述張縉彦鼎革出處的歧異內容。由此辨析歷史敘述的虛實成分、張縉彦自我詮辯是否具有効力,從而闡明此一歧異所具有的特殊意涵。其一,作為多重失節的文人,張縉彦等人大多重新編織、發明自己曾經殉而未死的過去,藉以擺脫心底的悔愧,展示重構的自我形象與存在意義。其二,張縉彥等人將自己的生命故事形諸文字,形成有別於他人的詮說話語,以期用「貳臣」之外的面目,公諸於人,流傳後世。以上二點,可說是自辯書寫對於張縉彥等貳臣的意義所在。最後,面對明清易代文人的自我詮辯與歷史敘述有所歧異,我們應該謹慎辨析,從而發掘其間的疑點與矛盾,並以結合歷史情境與個人生命的動態考察,抉發書寫主體深藏於論述裡的幽隱心事及其轉變。
This text reexamines the historical books, records and the poetic memorials to the king from Zhang Jin-Yan, it focuses on his experiences and achievements after Jia-Shen defection and his exile from Beijing, and it also compares to the differences between these two descriptions. Via analyzing the authentic and the unreal parts in historical narrative, probing into the efficacy of Zhang's self-defense, and going to a step further expounding the special implication under the ambiguity. First, as a rebellious retainer, like Zhang and others, they always try to recompile, and make up and devise their unsuccessful suicide experience in the past in order to get rid of the regret and reconstruct their self-images and their existent values. Second, Zhang and others showed their life into words, and attempted to make it different from others. Furthermore, they anticipated to use the other identities besides the one of "rebellious retainer", and unrolled it to people and hand down to the next descendants. Based on these, here is the meaning of self-apology from the rebellious retainers. In conclusion, when facing to the differences of the historical narrative from the predecessors' self-defenses, we should differentiate punctilious, discover the suspicious points and the contradiction, combine the historical circumstances and personal development to expand the unknowns secrete in his mind and his transformation in his self-description.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 12, 87-123
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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