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Title: "Jizhe" (Journalist) in Modern China: A Critical Survey of the Evolution of Its Titles and Profession
Authors: 溫楨文
Wen, Zhen-Wen
Keywords: 記者;訪友;訪員;報刊;新聞
Date: 2013-06
Issue Date: 2018-04-09 14:45:46 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「記者」一詞,在中國傳統文獻裡早已存在,概指「記述的事物」或「記錄者的自謂」。後者頗類報刊文稿上署名「記者」的道理,但仍與現今所泛指新聞從業人員-記者-職業意義與價值相去甚遠。本文擬根據清末民初的報刊資料,調查考究「記者」一詞在中國隨時間推移的過程中所產生的變化。透過觀察「記者」一詞出現之前,各種新聞從業人員的專門稱謂,可發現傳統中國報刊採訪者的起源與流變。至遲從1905年開始,中國境內一些報刊已開始出現「記者」一詞的廣泛運用,考諸當時影響力最大的《申報》即可見其端倪。記者此時已不甘於只作論政記者,他更關切的是整個國計民生的相關課題。除此之外,也開始注意國內外相關記者同行的消息,代表了其人開始自我意識到記者這一團體的存在。我們可以明白看出「記者」一詞已然從作文或編輯者的自謂之詞,完全轉變成了一種職業性的稱呼。最終「記者」這個詞彙竟彷如磁鐵一般,將上述各詞一一吸納其中,成為今日新聞從業者的統稱。
The meaning of the noun "Jizhe" in traditional Chinese literature indicates to "describing something" or a "self-appellation of recorder." The latter is quite similar to reporters in the press, but it is still much different from what we call the "journalist" nowadays. In this article, I probe into the evolution of various terms and labels for journalists based on the newspapers in Late Qing and Republican China. By examining the development of professional titles before the appearance of a proper noun "Jizhe," the pre-modern origin and modern transformation of journalist in China emerges. As late as 1905, the term "Jizhe" spread in some Chinese newspapers such as "Shenbao". At the time, "Jizhe" as a group concerned already more with people’s welfare than conventional politics. In addition, they also began to pay close attention to other journalists, domestic and foreign. It meant that their professional self-awareness was coming into being. Thereafter, the term "Jizhe" completely transformed into an occupation that was no longer "describing something" and "self-appellation of recorder." In the end, "Jizhe" absorbed and incorporated all the meanings of its traditional titles and became a general term for modern journalist.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 4, 305-344
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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