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Title: Patrolling the Southern Lands: The Dissemination and Evolution of the Patrolling Rites of Southeast Asia (A Case Study of a 2012 Sending the Royal Vessel Rites)
Authors: 李豐楙
Lee, Fong-Mao
Keywords: 馬六甲;送王舡;代天巡狩;瘟疫;Melaka
Sending the Royal Vessel;Patrol of the Imperial Aide;cholera
Date: 2013-12
Issue Date: 2018-04-09 17:07:23 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在大航海時代福建人移民馬來亞,由於霍亂隨著航運從印度傳染到東南亞,航線上的馬六甲、檳城等地均曾嚴重的流行。在疫情無法控制的情況下,福建人乃移植原籍的代天巡狩信仰,此即匾額所標誌的「威顯南邦」或「威震南蠻」。在十九世紀前半期馬六甲陸續建廟,崇奉王爺的盛行即反映瘟疫的流行,集中於十九世紀後半期到二十世紀初,連續舉行送王舡儀式的次數,剛好與亞洲霍亂流行的時間相符,即從十八世紀後半出現於印度,十九世紀共有6次的世界大流行,從印度沿著貿易路線波及東南亞,往北則及於中國沿海各省及臺灣等地。歷史上曾記載檳城1820年的霍亂大流行,曾請池王爺遶境驅除瘟神疫鬼,留下英國人J.Low目睹的紀錄;後來檳城王爺廟對此均作選擇性記憶,不願提及瘟疫的恐懼經驗。馬六甲則有五間王爺廟保存其歷史遺跡,早期在干冬(Kandang)清華宮舉行送王舡儀式,後來轉由萬怡力(Bandar Hirlir)勇全殿接辦,1905年、1919年、1933年三次的遶境,尚有路關圖及相關事蹟、文物被保存下來。其後歷經第二次世界大戰,且衛生條件逐漸改善,曾有一段長時間停辦。直到2012年恢復舉行後,勇全殿使用的醮名改稱「清醮」,乃柔佛州麻坡的外地道士所主持,本地道士已遺忘其科儀舊制,也缺少禮生主持供獻王爺的祀王儀禮,形成道士、乩童及法師的三壇「複合」儀式。此乃由於距離二十世紀初間隔太久,瘟疫記憶亦已淡化,故儀式細節既有遺失(如採蓮隊),也有轉變(如特重改運儀式),連遶境的區域也發生變化。依據此一例證作跨區域比較,東亞地區如福建、臺灣及印尼等地均有送王船儀式,原本「同源」卻因環境變化而形成「異流」現象,其儀式名稱及目的發生變化,即反映當地人集體需求的改變。故儀式結構具有「聚寶盒」效應,所收藏的物件既有同亦有異,乃因應時代而隨時變化,關鍵在此盒只要未被拋棄,就可方便收藏、填補不同的物件,此即「送王舡」儀式形成收藏歷史的效應。
During the Age of Exploration, since the navigation between India and Southeast Asia, cholera became seriously contagious in Melaka and Pulau Pinang, two places on the route. Meanwhile, when Hokkienese immigrated to Malaysia, on this occasion of epidemic situation was out of control, Hokkienese transplanted their "Patrol of the Imperial Aide" worship from their homeland, which were the words "In awe of the Southern Lands" or "In fear of the Southern Man People" displayed on the horizontal inscribed board. In the first part of the nineteenth century, there were temples continually building up in Melaka. The popularity of Wang Ye worship reflected the contagion of the plague. The times holding the rituals of "Sending the Royal Vessel" from the last part of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, a period that corresponds with the time periods when the cholera was contagious in Asia. This was a time when the worldwide spread of cholera grew six times via the trading route, from India to southeast Asia, as well as the northern Chinese coastal provinces and Taiwan. The history recorded the period of cholera pandemic in 1820 Pulau Pinang, and the British J. Low witnessed people in Pulau Pinangasking Chiwangye to patrol their territory in order to dispel the ghost of cholera. However, Wang Ye Miao in Pulau Pinang chose not to record it for they did not want to mention any about the cholera. On the other hand, five Wang Ye temples in Melaka kept the historical remains, which included the rituals of "Sending the Royal Vessel" held in the Qinghua temple in Kandang, as well as Bandar Hirlir in Yongquan Basilica, and the processions held in 1905, 1919 and 1933, and the related maps, deeds and historical relics. After World War II, there was a time not holding rituals due to the improvement of sanitation. Until 2012, the Yong Chuan Temple re-held the rituals and changed the name as "Ching jao," which was host by the Taoist priests from Muar in Johore since local Taoist priests already forgotten the old rites. There was much confusion over the proper etiquette and ceremony to sacrifice Wang Ye, which formed the "compound" rituals composed by Daoist priests and masters. The memory of plague became vague due to there has been a long time since the early twentieth century. Therefore, it missed some of the details of the rituals, such as picking lotus team, and transformed the enhancing luck rituals, even shifted the patrolling areas. Taking the instance as an example of crossing area research, there are rituals of sending out the Royal Vessel around Fujian, Taiwan or Indonesia in Southeast Asia; however, due to the changes of circumstance, "the same origin" of the title of the rituals and goals became "diverse branches," which reflected the changes of collective needs of local believers. Therefore, the structure of rituals contains the effects of "collecting treasure box," which contains the same or different stuffs in different time periods. As long as keeping the "collecting treasure box," it would store and refill different stuffs, which the rituals of "Sending the Royal Vessel" formed the historical effects.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 5, 3-7+9
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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