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Title: Translation of Word "戀愛" (Romantic Love) and Its Impact on Transformation of Its Meaning
Authors: 清地ゆき子
Yukiko, Kiyochi
Yao, Hong
Keywords: 近代譯詞;戀愛;意義縮小;高尚的精神性;反輸入
Modern Translation;Romantic Love;Reduction of Meaning;Refined Spirituality;Reverse Migration
Date: 2014-06
Issue Date: 2018-04-10 13:53:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在現代中文,近代譯語「戀愛」意為「男女相互愛慕」。本文將從詞源研究的角度出發,考察該詞得以普及的過程。「戀愛」一詞出現於中文的古典文學中,但其詞義與現代中文有所不同。該詞作為譯語被收錄於十九世紀中期的英華字典,其意義範圍亦比現代語更為廣泛,而且並沒有專指男女之情。而日文「戀愛」一詞於1870年代作為近代譯詞,借用自中文「戀愛」。明治時期翻譯的西方文學當中,該詞專指男女之情,其中包含了有別於肉體的「高尚的精神性」之意義。與中文的原義相比,意義範圍有所縮小,包含「高尚的精神性」的日文近代譯詞「戀愛」一詞,並於1880年代末至1890年代得以流行、普及。但是,進入二十世紀後,由中國人自日本創刊的報紙及雜誌《清議報》、《新小說》、《浙江潮》等使用了意義範圍縮小的「戀愛」一詞。而周作人和胡適等人於1910年代末的《新青年》上發表關於「戀愛自由」和「貞操問題」的議論當中,也可以發現:「戀愛」一詞於中國也被賦予了「高尚的精神性」之涵意。由此可以推測:在中日語言接觸的影響下,現代中文「戀愛」一詞得以普及。
This paper analyzes etymologically how the modern translated term "戀愛" started to came into widespread use as a word which meant "男女相互愛慕 (romantic love)". Use of this term "戀愛" can also be seen in classic Chinese literature; however the intended meaning was different from the present Chinese language. Even when this term was recorded as translated term in "英華字典 (English-Chinese Dictionary)" in mid-19th century, its meaning was not specific for romantic relationships between men and women, but articulated much broader meaning than the present Chinese language. On the other hand, "戀愛 (romantic love)" of Japanese language, which was borrowed from Chinese language in 1870s while translating the Western literature in Meiji period, was used specifically for romantic relationships between men and women and it included the connotation of "Refined Spirituality" departed from physical pleasures. This loan term "戀愛" of Japanese language abridged the extensiveness of original Chinese term and added a tinge of "Refined Spirituality". It became prevalent from 1880s to 1890s. In the beginning of 20th century, the term "戀愛" carrying reduced meaning similar to Japanese term "戀愛" started to appear in newspapers and magazines such as《清議報》,《新小説》 and《浙江潮》 which were founded in Japan by Chinese nationals living in Japan. Moreover, the arguments of eminent figures such as Zhou Zuoren and Hu Shi pertaining to "freedom of romantic love" and "problem of chastity" in magazine 《新青年》 in late 1910s indicate that the connotation of "Refined Spirituality" was also included in word "戀愛". Perhaps, it could be the influence of linguistic interaction with Japanese language which sparked spread of the present meaning of "戀愛" in Chinese language.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 6, 255-300
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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