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Title: Distorted Image: Transforming the Yung-Cheng Emperor in Chivalric Fiction in Late Qing and Early Republican China
Authors: 黃璿璋
Huang, Hsuan-Chang
Keywords: 正統;雍正;俠義;野史;歷史小說;呂四娘;集體記憶
Yung-cheng;Chivalric Fiction;Historical Fiction;Lü Siniang;Collective of Memory
Date: 2014-12
Issue Date: 2018-04-10 17:40:23 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 綜觀雍正相關野史發展,最早出現在文字獄鬆動的晚清;此時雍正多以劍俠的形象面世,相關野史如血滴子、呂四娘、不得善終等敘事也因應叢生,為形塑雍正集體記憶最初、也最重要的時期。晚清對於雍正皇帝的想像大多相悖於《大義覺迷錄》所宣稱的「正統性」,反以俠義小說的模式暗諷雍正得位之不正。本文試圖跳脫歷史學的考證框架,以集體記憶與文學生產的角度重新詮釋、定位歷史疑案─「雍正奪嫡」,觀察該事件於清末民初的通俗文學場域之中,如何駁反《大義覺迷錄》中宣揚的帝王正統形象,並以身體符號體現滿漢衝突與華夷之辨。本文首先觀察晚清野史如何繼承、改造、顛覆《大義覺迷錄》以來所建構的王位正統與史書正統,並寄寓華夷之辨的教化性。其次,從民國時期日益蓬勃的武俠小說場域中,也試圖從其中觀察雍正敘事從「大義」到「俠義」的線索,討論文書史料上的「大義」之爭,如何被轉化為俠與俠間的爭鬥,而呂四娘的出現,更以「四娘」殺「四子」的隱喻來尋求文化種族的正義。第三,以雍正遭到砍頭的敘事為主,分析作為清代國體象徵的頭顱如何在民國文人的想像中,以象徵明朝的軀體─呂四娘對清朝進行閹割,構成了小說當中的身體政治學。最後,薙髮、雍正、曾靜案等作為歷史事實,在清末民初的語境裡,為各階層知識分子共享的歷史資源;本文亦試圖指出通俗歷史小說與大眾記憶如何挪用歷史資源,並形成遊戲性與嚴肅性兼具的另一種國故論述。
For historians, the Yung-cheng Emperor was a great monarch of Qing dynasty. But he was transformed into a despot and peculiarly into a knight-errant in popular novels in late Qing and early Republican period, which was massively produced in order to invoke the public awareness of the distinction between the Chinese and the barbarian. This article uses the perspectives of the collective of memory and narrative production to examine how the knight-errant Yung-cheng and his violent death, in which he was decapitated by the female knight-errant Lü Siniang (Lü's fourth daughter), were characterized, and how the Han's traumatic memory of Yung-cheng's totalitarianism and the ideals of anti-Manchuism were represented in the series of chivalric fiction. This article begins with a reevaluation of the unofficial histories about Yung-cheng, which were recorded in Dayi juemi lu (Record of Awakening) and its numerous sequels in Late Qing. Next, it analyzes the process in which Yung-cheng was shaped into a cruel knight in popular fiction through Dayi juemi lu, especially in chivalric fiction. In the fictional narrative, the assassination of Yung-cheng (the fourth son of the Qing royal family) by Lü's fourth daughter leads the readers to contemplate the Qing's legitimacy and the position of the Han Chinese against the Manchus. Finally, the article argues that the decapitation of Yung-cheng compensates the public for their traumatic experiences under the Queue Order, the literary inquisition, and the memory of hsüeh ti-tzu (flyingguillotine gang) of Qing dynasty.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 7, 63-105
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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