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Title: Remembering and Forgetting the Korean War in Taiwan
Authors: 藍適齊
Lan, Shi-Chi
Keywords: 韓戰;歷史記憶;中華民國政府;「反共義士」
the Korean War;historical memory;Republic of China (ROC) government;"anti-communist righteous heroes"
Date: 2014-12
Issue Date: 2018-04-10 17:46:50 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 作為對臺灣近現代歷史影響最大的歷史事件之一,韓戰在近年來卻成為了一個被忽略的歷史課題。本文結合史料與「歷史記憶」研究方法,從歷史脈絡中來分析韓戰記憶在臺灣的變化。以中華民國官方所發行的《中央日報》以及當時所舉辦的各種慶祝紀念活動為焦點,本文首先分析1950年代臺灣的官方論述如何把「反共義士」建立成韓戰集體記憶中的核心,進而塑造韓戰為國民政府反共勝利和中(華民國)韓兩國情誼堅固的象徵。本文更進一步指出,臺灣的韓戰歷史記憶在1960年代之後出現了顯著的改變。隨著官方反共論述的「世界化」與「抽象化」以及臺灣國際局勢的轉變,韓戰的「反共義士」不再被賦予如過去的重要意義,而形塑「韓戰」作為集體記憶的活動與報導更是迅速地消退。而時至1990年代,由於臺灣身分認同的改變,以及臺韓關係與臺灣對韓國態度的改變等因素,韓戰相關的紀念活動多被忽視甚至全面停止消失,韓戰也就在具有「協調性的遺忘」之下快速地從大眾的記憶中退場。戰後這六十年來韓戰記憶在臺灣的興衰變化,正反映了歷史記憶隨著身分認同改變的現象,更清楚顯現了歷史記憶作為一種主觀性的對當下政治社會現實的再現。而本文對「韓戰」歷史記憶在臺灣的建構與變化所作的分析,同時也說明了歷史記憶與政治觀念之間相互的影響。
In modern Taiwanese history, the Korean War is one of the most crucial events. However, it has rarely been discussed in present-day Taiwan. This paper examines how such a significant event was remembered and then forgotten in collective memory over the past sixty years in Taiwan. This paper first analyzes the process in which the Korean War became known and commemorated in Taiwan in the 1950s. It finds that during this period, the Korean War was widely represented through state media and mass mobilization as a symbol of Republic of China (ROC)-(South) Korea solidarity and ROC/Taiwan's own victory over communism. At the height of ROC's fight against communism, memory of the Korean War-centered on the arrival of more than 14,000 Chinese prisoners of war or later known as the "anti-communist righteous heroes" in 1954-became the base on which the ROC government strengthened its ruling legitimacy in Taiwan. This paper then examines the remembrance of the Korean War between the 1960s and the 1980s. It finds that following the diplomatic setback and international isolation of the ROC throughout this period, the (memory of the) Korean War lost its significance into the official "anti-communism" discourse and became marginalized in collective memory in Taiwan. Furthermore, since the 1990s, with the emergence of a new Taiwan-based political identity and deterioration of ROC-Korea relationship, very limited narratives or activities continue to commemorate the Korean War. Under what is known as "concerted forgetting", the Korean War became the "forgotten war" in Taiwan. The changing memory of the Korean War in Taiwan as analyzed in this paper illustrates how historical memory has been shaped by present-day political concerns; at the same time, contemporary political ideas have been shaped by historical memory.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 7, 205-251
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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