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Title: Original Physics
Authors: 楊儒賓
Yang, Rur-Bin
Keywords: 物理學;原生物理學;理學;知識體系;形上學
physics;original physics;Neo-Confucianism;a system of knowledge;metaphysics
Date: 2014-12
Issue Date: 2018-04-10 17:49:43 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 當代漢語的「物理學」為自然科學中一門嚴格的知識體系,其內涵主要是沿著西方引進的現代知識而建立的,然而,此詞語的成立乃是在十九世紀末二十世紀初,由日譯的西洋知識術語引進中國所致,而日譯漢字「物理學」一詞又受到明末耶穌會教士與其時儒者如方以智的《物理小識》等的影響。不管在明末或十九世紀的中、日兩國,其時吸收“physics”的知識母胎都是借自程朱理學的知識概念,諸多“physics”的化身,如「格致學」、「究理學」、「理學」等,全取自程朱理學。在諸多競爭的術語中,「物理學」最後脫穎而出,成為定名。程朱物理學是現代東亞物理學的母體,但對「物理」的重視可視為心學外的理學之共法。如果目前被知識社群採用的物理學可稱作現代物理學,程朱物理學則可視為原生物理學,原生物理學和現代物理學最大的差別在於,原生物理學具有形上學與倫理學的向度,物理一方面可通向終極的太極,一方面具有應然的倫理性質,也就是「物理」具有「所以然」與「所當然」的向度。原生物理學在心學興起,尤其是王陽明的良知學興起後,基本上被遺忘了,心學中沒有物理學的位置。在清代主流學術當中,「物理」的形上內涵被拋棄了,但仍保留倫理學的性質。及至二十世紀確立現代物理學的知識後,倫理學即被驅出物理學的門庭之外,「應然」與「自然」分家,當代物理學成了純粹的科學理性之產物。
The term "physics" in Chinese is pronounced as wu-li-xue. The concept of wu-li-xue as a branch of science was imported from the West through Japan. As usual, Japanese literati first translated the terms of modern science into classical Chinese characters, and then Chinese translators adopted the same terms in their writings. Wu-li (literally, the principles of things) is a popular concept in Neo- Confucianism. In the late nineteenth century, Japanese translators used the classical Chinese characters, combined with Neo-Confucian values, to convey the counterpart ideas of modern physics to the Oriental world. However, the native meaning of wu-li is still hidden in the modern usage of physics. Compared with the modern usage of physics, wu-li in classical Chinese embodies three kinds of principles: one is of natural meaning, another is of metaphysical meaning, the third is of ethical meaning. In Sung dynasty, wu-li contained the three levels of principles. As the school of Wang Yang-ming rose in the horizon of Ming dynasty, the meaning of wu was almost forgotten. In the middle of the seventeenth century, the significance of metaphysical elements in wu-li was eliminated from the mainstream Confucian academy. When R.O.C. replaced the Qing dynasty, the ethical significance in wu-li was further erased by the westernized Chinese scholars. The marriage between the Neo-Confucian wu-li with the physics of modern science ended in an unhappy couple, as the Chinese idiom says "they dream the different scenes in the same bed."
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 7, 255-297
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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