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Title: The Interaction between the Translation of "Urban Autonomy" and Centralized Self-Governing Institutions: W. B. Munro's The Government of European Cities and its Japanese and Chinese Translations
都市自治著作翻譯與集權式自治制度的互動──以門羅(W. B. Munro)的The Government of European Cities及其日、中譯本為中心
Authors: 祁梁
Liang, Qi
Keywords: 自治;門羅;知識翻譯;集權制度;語言
Autonomy/Selbst Verwaltung;Munro;Knowledge Translation;Power-Centralized Institutions;Languages
Date: 2015-06
Issue Date: 2018-04-16 11:41:17 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「自治」在清末中國有三種內涵:個人修養、省級獨立以及地方自治,其最後一種含義為以本土紳商為代表的地方菁英辦理地方公益事務。這一詞彙及相關理論的引入仍和歐洲、日本之間有著深刻聯繫。其中有關都市自治問題的含義,西方和中國之間的差異也十分明顯。西歐都市自治的思想傳播到日本和中國,可以以哈佛大學政治學教授門羅(W. B. Munro,1875-1957)完成於1909年的《歐洲城市的政府》(The Government of European Cities)一書為例。中譯本無論是在詞彙選擇還是在意思表示方面,都明顯沿襲繼承了日譯本。而在自治制度的傳播方面,集權式的自治制度由絕對主義普魯士傳播到明治日本,再傳播到清末中國,形成了一個制度鎖鏈,但實施結果則大相逕庭。這也反過來說明「自治」相關的思想理論經由日本傳播到中國所產生的問題。英語的"Autonomy"是指一種與自我經驗和習慣相關的自發自動的秩序,其突出個體的獨立性和探索性。德語的"Selbst Verwaltung"則指的是一種自我管理的理性克制,其突出個體為了服從國家理性而像一個齒輪一樣的良好運轉。和製漢語「自治(じち)」對應的正是"Selbst Verwaltung"的意思。門羅的《歐洲城市的政府》經由日語管道翻譯到中國,只會愈加突顯出普魯士─日本自治制度的集權性格,而和英文原文含義相去愈遠。
The term zizhi (自治) had three connotations during the Late Qing: Personal Cultivation, Provincial Independence, and Local Self- Government, with the last connotation referring to the governance of local gentry and merchants over local affairs. While the introduction of this concept had a profound connection with Europe and Japan, there were also distinctions between the West and China about the meaning of "urban autonomy". These distinctions can be seen in the relay translations of W. B. Munro's The Government of European Cities (1909) from English into Japanese and Chinese. The Chinese version inherited much of the word selection and expression from the Japanese translation. The owercentralized self-governing institutions had spread from Absolutist Prussia to Meiji Japan and then to Late Qing China, forming an institutional chain that differed in its modes of implementation. This in turn indicates what was problematic when the theories of self-governance spread to China via Japan. Autonomy is defined as an automatic order related to self-experience and custom, which emphasizes the independence and exploration of individual, whereas the German Selbst Verwaltung refers to the rational restraint of self-management, which emphasizes an individual's obedience to the willpower of state and his or her role as a well-functioning gear. The Japanese-invented phrase with Chinese characters「自治( じち)」used in the translation reflected the meaning of Selbst Verwaltung. As Munro's The Government of European Cities was translated into Chinese via Japanese, the translation only demonstrated the centralized characteristics of Prussian-Japanese systems of self-governance, straying from Munro's original meaning in English.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 8, 137 - 185
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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