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Title: The Aesthetic Dimension: Wang Jingzhi's Theory of Bi-Xing in his Full Explanation of Shijing
Authors: 廖棟樑
Liao, Tong-Liung
Contributors: 中文系
Keywords: 詩經;王靜芝;比興;類似之聯想;接近之聯想
Shijing;Wang Jingzhi;Bi-Xing;the association based on likeness;the association based on approach
Date: 2017-04
Issue Date: 2018-06-13 11:58:19 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 關於《詩經》,「詩言志」、「比興」、「溫柔敦厚」的「詩教」批評意念等,被朱自清稱為我國古代詩歌理論的三個「基本的觀念」,「後世論詩,都以這三者為金科玉律。」其中「比興說」,雖被稱為「詩學之正源,法度之準則」,卻又最難分解清楚。對於「比興」此一歷史的意義的釐訂與澄清的工作,朱自清在其《詩言志辨》言之甚明,不擬多贅。靜芝先生對「比興」的區分雖亦自傳統的觀念中延伸出來,但為了嚴格地劃分它們語意上的界域,有時便不能不走出傳統的觀念之外,而注入了新的內涵。靜芝先生說:「比是以彼事物比作此事物,為類似之聯想。而興則以彼事物,由聯想而引起此一事物,為接近之聯想,非直接作比。興是先以興起之詞,引起敘事之詞。亦可謂先以一相關引起之語,引起賦體之鋪敘,二者合併則為興。比體則純是比,而不與賦體合併而成也。」定義「簡明扼要」,但其語言美學的內涵卻勝義迭出。本文謹以「比興說」為議題,據《詩經通釋》的說法為主,佐之以《經學通論》、〈詩比興釋例〉等專章、論文的分類釋例,探討王靜芝先生的觀點,揭明源頭、機制及特色,並徵引當代隱喻理論加以衍義,以明其學術深度與意義。
The critical theories concerning poetry instruction about Shijing, Poems to Express Ideal, Bi-Xing, as well as Gentleness and Kindness, were called the three Basic Concepts in the traditional Chinese poetry theory, in The Analyze of Poem Express Ideal by Zhu Ziqing. "Later generations' poetry Critics are based on the three basic concepts," said by Zhu. Among the three, the theory of Bi-Xing is the most difficult to explain clearly, although it has been called the Origin of Traditional Chinese Poetic, and the Code of Poetic Norms. Theories about Bi-Xing in history have been clarified by Zhu Ziqing in The Analyze of Poem Express Ideal. Wang Jingzhi distinguished Bi from Xing based on the traditional concepts as well; however, he sometimes stepped out of the traditional theories and gave Bi and Xing new connotations to strictly divide their semantic boundaries. Wang Jingzhi defined, "Bi is to compare one thing to another, which is the association based on likeness. On the contrary, Xing is linking one thing to another through association, which is the association based on approach, instead of comparison. Xing is giving rise to the described ones by the Xing words, which uses correlatives leading to narrate described ones in detail. The combine of the described ones and the Xing words is Xing. On the other hand, Bi is independent, which does not depend on the combination with the described ones." Wang Jingzhi's definitions of Bi and Xing are concise and to the point. However, there are rich aesthetic connotations in his definitions. This paper will discuss Wang Jingzhi's theory of Bi-Xing, based on his Full Explanation of Shijing, followed by examples in his General Theory of Confucian Classics and Examples for Bi-Xing of Shijing. The sources, mechanisms and characteristics of Wang's theory will be revealed, and the present-day metaphor theory will be quoted to elucidate the academic depth and significance of Wang's theory of Bi-Xing.
Relation: 輔仁國文學報, No.第四十四期, pp.67-120
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 期刊論文

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