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Title: 不同類型的在地化:國際非政府組織在中國的發展路徑
Different Localizations: Development Paths of INGOs in China
Authors: 成瑤
Cheng, Yao
Hsiao, Hsin-Huang Michael
Keywords: 國際化;在地化;中國政府;政治敏感
Internationalization;Localization;Chinese Government;Political Sensitivity
Date: 2018-06
Issue Date: 2018-08-20 16:49:13 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 數千個國際非政府組織(International Non-Governmental Organizations, INGO)先後在中國開展工作,其中大部分都長期面臨著法律和體制上的身分問題。〈中華人民共和國境外非政府組織境內活動管理法〉首次明確規定了對INGO 的管理,它受到來自各方的不同評論。一方面,INGO 能夠獲得法律地位,其工作將有法律依據。但另一方面,政府,特別是公安機關,已經被賦予新的權力來監控INGO。如何應對不斷變化的環境和趨勢是每個在中國的INGO 都必須面對的常態議題。政府對INGO 的管理和監督一直存在,一些INGO在其長期工作中發展出獲得合法性的方法。 本文調查了在中國政治和制度背景下一個INGO 發展的過程和策略。在過去近二十年中,這個INGO 為適應中國不斷變化的情況發展出多種身分(國際非政府組織、地方組織、基金會、企業等)。因此,新法案並未對它造成較大衝擊。該INGO 在中國的轉型大方向是在地化,但它並沒有完全放棄其國際組織的身分和實踐。我們發現INGO 在中國的不同時空下發展出兩條不同路徑。對於所有在中國的INGO 來說,組織變遷圍繞著一個中心問題展開,這個問題往往極具挑戰性,甚至相互矛盾,即是應該堅持履行其組織使命還是維持其國際組織身份並在中國長期運作?
The thousands of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), operating in China, continued to grapple with the enduring issue of their legal and institutional status as China introduced rules governing their operations in China with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Administration of Activities of Overseas Non-Governmental Organizations within the Territory of China in January 2017. So far, the law has received mixed reviews. For the first time, it allowed INGOs to apply for legal status, however, their work will now be monitored and controlled by the Public Security Ministry. INGOs must now work out how to cope with these changes. The government has always controlled INGOs in China, and over time some of them developed approaches to secure legitimacy for their longterm programs. Choosing one INGO as a case study, we investigated the processes and strategies that they can use to develop within Chinese political and institutional contexts. The INGO in this study has been able to navigate the Chinese context for nearly two decades, taking on multiple identities(INGO, local organization, foundation, enterprise and so on)to adapt to different circumstances. This history makes it particularly well-positioned to handle the new law. It has tended towards localization; yet, it has neither completely abandoned its international organization identity nor practices. We find that INGO development in China can be divided into two distinct paths across different times and different regions. Organizational change revolves around a central question that is often extremely challenging—even contradictory—for INGOs in China: Should it insist on fulfilling its organizational mission or maintain its status as an INGO and hence operations in China?
Relation: 中國大陸研究, 61(2), 23-49
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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